cod. 1004830

Academic year 2020/21
2° year of course - Second semester
- Arturo CARTA - Stefano GANDOLFI
Academic discipline
Malattie apparato visivo (MED/30)
"scienze dell'ortottica e dell'assistenza di oftalmologia"
Type of training activity
28 hours
of face-to-face activities
4 credits
hub: PARMA
course unit

Learning objectives

The course aims to train the student on the low vision problems, addressing the classification, the rehabilitation techniques, the main causes in children, adults, and elders. Completing the course, the student must know and be able to use the main auxiliary optic devices.


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Course unit content

Low vision: definition and classification.
· Rehabilitation: definition.
· Ocular diseases causing low vision in children: nystagmus, optic atrophy, congenital cataract, retinopathy of prematurely, congenital glaucoma, retinal degenerations.
· Ocular diseases causing low vision in adults: albinism, multiple sclerosis, optic atrophy, degenerative myopia.
· Ocular diseases causing low vision in elderly: diabetic retinopathy, age-related maculopathy.
· Magnification: definition.
· Auxiliary optic devices: lenses, optical telescope.
· Electronic devices: CCTV (black and white and colour portable video-magnification; electonic magnification, vocal synthesis.
· Filters.
· Legislation.
- recall of eye anatomy
- the development of the visual system in the critical period: what the child sees from birth to 6 years
- Eye screening at birth and in children
- The measurement of visual acuity in children and pediatric optitypes
- Stereopsis and tests to measure it
- The congenital strabismus
- Refractive defects in the child, schiascopy (principles and examination technique)
- Amblyopia, its causes and its treatment
- Leukocoria in the child

Full programme

- lo sviluppo del sistema visivo nel periodo critico: quanto vede il bambino dalla nascita ai 6 anni
-Lo screening oculistico alla nascita e in età pediatrica
-la misurazione dell'acuità visiva nel bambino ed ottitipi pediatrici
-La stereopsi e i test per misurarla
-Lo strabismo congenito
-la leucocoria nel bambino
-I difetti refrattivi nel bambino, la schiascopia (principi e tecnica d'esame)
- L'ambliopia, le sue cause e il suo trattamento


A. Colembrander, D. C. Fistcher: "Oftalmologia clinica nel Nord America - Ipovisione e riabilitazione visiva", Verducci Editore;
Azzolini C, et al: "Clinica dell'apparato visivo-Seconda Edizione"
Elsevier-Masson Italia.
P. B. Freeman, Randal T. Jose: "The art and practice of low vision", Buttersworth-Hainemann a division of Reed Publishing (USA) Inc.;

Teaching methods

The topics included in the program of the module will be illustrated and commented during lectures, supplemented, as the case may be, by parts of active teaching which provide individual and group exercises and practical activities. Due to the emergency situation the lessons could also take place remotely (synchronously / asynchronously) using Microsoft Teams.

Assessment methods and criteria

The achievement of the objectives will be established during oral examination. Through questions on the topics covered in the course will assess the knowledge and understanding of the content by the student. Due to the emergency situation, the exam could only take place in the oral / remote form using the Microsoft Teams platform.

Other information

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