PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY I
cod. 00125

Academic year 2020/21
2° year of course -
Professor
- Roberto CAMMI
Academic discipline
Chimica fisica (CHIM/02)
Field
Discipline chimiche inorganiche e chimico-fisiche
Type of training activity
Characterising
52 hours
of face-to-face activities
6 credits
hub: PARMA
course unit
in ITALIAN

Integrated course unit module: PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY I AND LABORATORY

Learning objectives

The educational objectives of the PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY I Course agree with those foreseen by the Degree Course Council:

Knowledge and ability to understand
The student
- possesses basic knowledge of the characteristics of the different states of matter and theories used to describe them;
- possesses basic knowledge of the principles of thermodynamics, electrochemistry, kinetic gas theory and chemical kinetics and their applications in chemistry;
-It has basic knowledge of chemical transformations, including catalysis, and the mechanistic interpretation of reactions
chemical;

Ability to apply knowledge and understanding
The student:
- is able to perform elementary energy balance calculations, determinations of equilibrium constants, kinetic constants and reaction orders;
- is able to collect scientific data through laboratory observations and measurements, to elaborate and interpret them;
- is able to use chemical-physical techniques and methodologies to derive molecular properties and for structural recognition;
- possesses basic IT skills related to operating systems, word processing, spreadsheets, use of databases;

Autonomy of judgment
The student :
- is able to collect and critically evaluate, present and discuss the experimental results acquired in collaborative activities;
- is capable of planning and conducting an experiment, also planning time and modalities;
- is able to find and analyze sources of information in literature and in chemical databases;
-is able to handle substances in safe conditions, to classify waste substances, processing residues and dispose of them correctly;
is able to correlate the data and results acquired experimentally with theoretical models;

Communication skills
The student:
- is able to communicate, both in oral and written form in the context of professional activities and relationships, with a strict respect for the chemical language;
- is capable of interacting, communicating with properties of language and method and collaborating profitably even in a purposeful way with other people;
- is capable of processing and presenting experimental data even with the aid of multimedia systems;
- is able to interact with other staff on the implementation of procedures and the necessary safety measures in the chemical field.

Learning skills
The student :
- is able to undertake higher level academic studies with a sufficient degree of autonomy or to continue his professional training;
- is able to work by objectives, in groups or independently;
- is able to adapt to different working environments and themes;
-is able to interpret, in an autonomous way, data of scientific technical literature, especially in the practical-applicative field.

Prerequisites

Basics of General Chemistry, Mathematical Analysis and General Physics.

Course unit content

1. Properties of gases and zero law of thermodynamics.
2. Basic concepts of thermodynamics
3. First law of thermodynamics
4. Applications of the first law of thermodynamics
5. Thermochemistry.
6. The second law of thermodynamics.
7. The fundamental equation of thermodynamics and thermodynamic potentials.
8. The Gibbs energy.
9. Chemical potential
10. Thermodynamics of phase transitions
11. Mixtures and solutions
12. Liquid-Vapor equilibrium in two-component systems.
13. Colligative properties
14. Chemical equilibrium.
15. Chemical kinetics.

Full programme

1 Properties of Gases and Zero Law of Thermodynamics
1.1 Physical state of gases
1.2 Temperature and Zero Law of thermodynamics
1.3 Thermometric Scales
1.4 Equation of state of ideal gases
1.7 Kinetic theory of gases
1.8 Isotherms of real gases: critical temperature and condensation
1.9 Molecular interactions in real gases
1.10 Compressibility of real gases
1.11 Virial state equation
1.12 Van der Waals state equation
1.13 Isotherm of van der Waals
1.14 Law of the corresponding states

2 Basic Concepts of Thermodynamics
2.1 Thermodynamic systems
2.2 Status of a thermodynamic system: state variables and status functions
2.3 State transformations
2.4 States of equilibrium and states of non-equilibrium

3 First law of Thermodynamics
3.1 Work, heat, energy
3.2 The experimental bases of the first law
3.3 The formulation of the first law: internal energy
3.4 The measure of work
3.5 The measurement of heat and thermal capacities
3.6 Corollaries of the first law
3.7 Infinitesimal state transformations
3.8 Partial derivatives of internal energy
3.9 The molecular interpretation of internal energy

4. Applications of the First Law of Thermodynamics
4.1 Expansive and non-expansive work
4.2 Internal energy and heat exchanges at constant volume
4.3 Enthalpy and heat exchanges at constant pressure
4.4 Transformations of gases
4.5 Thermodynamic properties of ideal gases
4.6 Thermodynamic properties of real gases

5 Thermochemistry
5.1 Reaction heat and Hess's law
5.2. Enthalpy and reaction energy
5.3 Standard reaction enthalpies
5.4 Effect of temperature
5.5 Relationship between enthalpy and reaction energy
5.6 Phase transition enthalpy
5.7 Molecular interpretation of thermochemistry
5.8 The degree of progress of chemical reactions

6 Second Law of Thermodynamics
6.1 Irreversible processes
6.2 Entropy and the second law of thermodynamics
6.3 Corollaries of the second law
6.4 Measurement of entropy variations
6.5 Changes in entropy and irreversible transformations
6.6 Entropy of the pure substance
6.7 Third law of thermodynamics
6.8 Absolute entropy of pure substances
6.9 Standard reaction entropy
6.10 Molecular interpretation of entropy
6.11 Thermal machines

7 The Fundamental Equation of Thermodynamics and thermodynamic potentials
7.1 Basic equation
7.2 General thermodynamic relations: Helmholtz equation, relation between thermal capacities
7.3 General criteria of spontaneity and balance: the thermodynamic potentials
7.4 Isolated systems and entropy
7.5 The isochore-isothermal transformations and the Helmholtz energy)
7.6 Isobar-isothermal transformations and Gibbs energy)
7.7 Theorem of non-expansive work

8 The Gibbs energy
8.1 Standard Gibbs energy of pure substances
8.2 Temperature dependence and the Gibbs-Helmholtzù equation
8.3 Dependence on pressure
8.4 Gibbs energy of ideal and real gases, of liquids and of pure solids.

9 The Chemical Potentials
9.1 Definition
9.2 The Gibbs-Duhem equation
9.3 Chemical potentials of pure substances
9.4 Chemical Potential in mixtures and solutions and thermodynamic activity
9.5 The chemical potentials and the reaction Gibbs energy: the direction of spontaneity and chemical equilibrium

10 Thermodynamics of phase transitions
10.1 Phase diagrams of pure substances
10.2 The Clapeyron equation
10.3 Rule of the Gibbs phases
10.3 Duhem theorem
10.4 Liquid-Vapor binary systems
10.5 Solutions in equilibrium with solids
10.6 Condensation in the van der Waals isotherms: the construction of Maxwell
10.7 Classification of phase transitions

11 Mixtures and Solutions
11.1 Chemical potentials in mixtures and solutions
11.2 Ideal systems and real systems
11.4 Ideal gas mixtures
11.5 The perfect solutions
11.6 Ideal diluted solutions
11.7 Real solutions
11.8 Mixing thermodynamics of perfect solutions
11.9 Real solutions and excess functions
11.10 Regular Solutions

12 Liquid-Vapor Equilibria in binary solutions
12.1 Vapor pressure in perfect solutions and Raoult's law
12.2 Vapor tensions in ideal diluted solutions and Henry's law
12.3 Vapor pressure in real solutions, azeotropic systems

13 Colligative Properties and Solubility
13.1 Ebullioscopic elevation
13.2 Cryoscopic lowering
13.3 Osmotic pressure
13.4 Solubility of perfect solutions

14 Chemical equilibrium
14.1 Gibbs energy of reaction
14.2 Gibbs energy of reaction and non-expansive work
14.3 Gibbs energy of reaction and thermodynamic activities
14.4 The law of mass action
14.5 Reactions between ideal gases
14.6 Reactions in ideal and real solutions
14.7 Heterogeneous reactions
14.8 Determination of equilibrium constants
14.9 Temperature effect
14.10 Effect of pressure
14.11 Parallel reactions and thermodynamic control

15 Chemical Kinetics
15.1 Rate of reaction and kinetic laws
15.2 Kinetic laws and reaction mechanisms
15.5 Kinetic equations of reaction mechanisms
15.5 Approximation of steady state
15.6 Temperature effect
15.7 Transition state theory
15.8 Catalysis
15.9 Kinetic control vs thermodynamic control

Bibliography

Peter W. Atkins,Julio De Paula, Chimica Fisica, 5a Ed., Zanichelli, 2012.
Ilya Prigogine,Dilip Kondepudi, Termodinamica. Dai motori termici alle strutture dissipative, Bollati-Boringhieri, 2002

Teaching methods

The teaching activities are conducted through lectures (52h), in mixed mode, supplemented by in-depth tutoring and tutoring seminars.
The slides used to support the lessons will be uploaded to the Elly platform.
The slides are considered, together with the reference texts, an integral part of the teaching material. Non-attending students can check the teaching materials available through the Elly platform.

Assessment methods and criteria

The methods for verifying learning consist of:
- in the critical discussion of the reports related to the experiments conducted in the laboratory, with a scale of 0-30 and weight 0.25
- in a written test with open answers, with a scale of 0-30 and weight of 0.25.
- in an oral exam by means of interrogation, with an evaluation scale of 0-30 and weight 0.50
For the dates of the appeals (winter session February, summer June-July, autumn September 2018) see Esse3

Other information

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