cod. 1007312

Academic year 2019/20
2° year of course - Second semester
Professor responsible for the course unit
PELA' Giovanna Maria
integrated course unit
6 credits
hub: PARMA
course unit

Learning objectives

The course will offer the indispensable tools for understanding the mechanisms through which physical exercise plays a key role in promoting health and how it is a powerful tool in prevention (primary and secondary) and care of major chronic degenerative diseases.
It will offer knowledge on Doping phenomenon in terms of protecting the health of the athlete.
The course aims to allow the student to know and understand the main sports-related drugs.


Basic knowledge of biochemistry, anatomy and human physiology

Course unit content

Topics of the course:
Doping: the list of prohibited substances, national and international legislation, current legislation, sanctions, control procedures, quality criteria for accredited laboratories, Expected effects of drugs, Short-term and long-term adverse effects of drugs used, the analytical techniques used in anti-doping controls, the characteristics of biological samples and the variables that influence the reliability of the results.
Doping phenomenon and related issues in the current socio-cultural context.
The beneficial and adverse effects of exercise both in the healthy subject and in the major chronic degenerative pathologies (obesity, hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia ...); The effects of tobacco smoke and methods of desensitization;

Respiratory function in the elderly, and the effects of physical activity in this population.
Characteristics of chest pain (pleura and lung disease: pleurisy and pneumothorax, pulmonary edema: high-altitude influenza and underwater environment.
Causes of sudden death and the main methods of investigation used in the diagnosis of cardiovascular disease: hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy , Wolf-Parkinson-White syndrome, long QT syndrome, Brugada syndrome.
Differential diagnosis pathological and physiological cardiac hypertrophy (Athlete's heart).
Main contraindications to sports activity.
General concepts of nutrition, hydration and integration in sports activities and the effects of physical exercise in adverse environmental conditions.
The use of the major drugs in connection with the pursuit of sports activities.

Full programme

PHARMACOLOGY General Pharmacology: General Concepts.
Pharmacodynamics: Receptor, Agonism and Antagonism of Autonomic Nervous System. Pharmacology: Neuromodulators Neurotransmitters;Agonists and Antagonists of the Cholinergic System. Agonists and Antagonists of the Adrenergic System.
Special pharmacology:
  Drugs for abuse, anti-inflammatory drugs. Medication of the central nervous system

PNEUMOLOGY: 1. Respiratory system components: pulmonary function, respiratory muscles, respiratory epithelium, alveolo-capillary diffusion
2. Respiratory function tests: spirometry and pulmonary volumes, emogas
3. Exercise physiology: respiratory rate, anaerobic threshold, heart and respiratory response to exercise
4. Physical activity: difference between physical activity and exercise capacity, physical activity questionnaires
5. Exercise capacity measures: walking test (6 minutes and shuttle) and cardio-pulmonary stress tests (incremental at ramp and constant load).

CARDIOLOGY:1. Cardiovascular physiology. Hemodynamic parameters. The heart murmurs
2. Heart diseases: ischemic heart disease, cardiomyopathies, valvular heart disease.
3. Diagnostic tests in Cardiology (ECG, etc.).
4. Cardiovascular risk factors: smoking, hypertension (tables 2013), dyslipidemia, diabetes ... Stratification of risk. European and Italian risk cards
5. Arterial hypertension Classification of risk
6. Primary Cardiovascular Prevention: Effects of Physical Exercise. Pharmacological interventions for the treatment of hypertension, dyslipidaemia, diabetes
7. Cardiovascular Adaptation to physical Exercise: Physiological and pathological cardiac hypertrophy
8. Sudden death in the athlete
9. Arrhythmias: Brugada syndrome, ventricular pre-excitation, long QT.

Doping history, WADA prohibited list, national and international rule, current legislation, sanctions, controls, side and expected effects of drugs. Doping related problem in the present social and cultural context.
Positive and negative effects of exercise on healthy people and on main chronic-degenerative diseases (obesity, diabetes, hypertension, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular and dislipidemic diseases, tumors, aging). Sports nutrition and hydration supplements. Sport Therapy: what kind of physical activity prescribe (type, intensity, duration, frequency) in clinical context and how administer it.


Argomenti di Medicina dello sport" Bonetti A., Editore MUP

David R. Mottram
Casa Editrice Ambrosiana


Manuale di Medicina dello Sport e Pronto Soccorso. P. Zeppilli, V. Palmieri.Ed. CESI.

Protocolli cardiologici per il giudizio di idoneità allo sport agonistico. Ed. CESI.

Teaching methods

Oral lessons, optional courses, seminars

Assessment methods and criteria

Oral assessment

Other information

During the academic year one optional course will be proposed:
Cardiological evaluation in athlete "