cod. 1006049

Academic year 2017/18
1° year of course - First semester
Professor responsible for the course unit
BACCHI Alessia
integrated course unit
15 credits
hub: PARMA
course unit

Course unit structured in the following modules:

Learning objectives

The aim of the course is to give the fundamental chemical concepts required to face the study of Chemistry. Particular emphasis is given to three aspects of the modern chemistry, the structural, energetic and kinetic ones, involved in all chemical problems. The theoretical treatment of the fundamental concepts is followed by examples . Care is given to teach formal correctness of language, and to highlight connections among different parts of the program.LABORATORY
Knowledge and understanding: The Course of Laboratory of General and Inorganic Chemistry has the aim to provide the students with the fundamental concept and to show the principal experimental techniques which are necessary for the study of Chemistry. In particular, two fundamental aspects will be highlighted: the numeric/stoichiometric aspect (calculations, use of formulae, use of software for the numeric data treatment) and the experimental aspect (participation to lab activities, use of the instruments in the chemical laboratory).Application of knowledge and understanding, and acquisition of competences:The course will stimulate the study of Chemistry through approaches described here below, with the aim to provide the students with concepts (knowledge) and methods to apply them on real problems (competences).- Critical use of books and handouts, interaction with the teacher- Capacity in acquisition and usage of proper language and terms- Critical evaluation of own skills, interaction with other students- Capacity to acquire autonomy in planning and carrying out the activities in the laboratory



Course unit content

1. The foundations of the atomic and molecular theory
2 Structure of the atoms.

3 Chemical bond

4 Nomenclature of the compounds

5 States of aggregation of the matter

6 Solutions

7 Chemical thermodinamics

8 Chemical equilibrium

9 Ionic equilibria

10 Chemical kinetics

11 Electrolytic and galvanic cells

12 Inorganic chemistry

The first lectures will deal with the introduction on the chemical nomenclature, the chemical reactions, and the principal methods for stoichiometric calculations.The lectures of the second part of the semester will deal with numerical excercises on: gaseous systems, chemical equilibrium, theories of acids and bases.Lectures will be delivered on the description of the laboratory activities and on the safety procedures in the laboratory. These lectures will be followed, in the second part of the semester, by prctical activities in the chemical laboratory.

Full programme

The foundations of the atomic and molecular theory

Aggregation states of the matter. Names and symbols of the elements. Chemical equations. Atomic and molecular weights. Scale of the atomic weights. Mole and avogadro's number. Absolute atomic and molecular weights.

2 Structure of the atoms.
Principles of the quantum mechanics. The hydrogen atom. Polyelectron atoms. Electronic configuration of the atoms. Periodic properties of the elements.

3 Chemical bond

Ionic bond. Properties of the ionic compounds. Covalent bond. The lewis octet rule. Vsepr theory. Theory of the valence bond (vb) and theory of the molecular orbitals (mo). Hybrid orbitals. Description by the vb method of the bonds in simple molecoles and polyatomic ions, both inorganic and organic. Metallic bond. Van der Waals bonds. Hydrogen bond.

4 Nomenclature of the compounds

Chemical reactions. Oxidation numbers. Classification and nomenclature of the inorganic compounds. Chemical reactions: salification, exchange and oxidation-reduction (redox) reactions.

5 States of aggregation of the matter

Gaseous state: properties of the gases, ideal and nonideal gases. Liquefation of the gases. Liquid state. Solid state: properties of the solids. Crystal lattices and unit cells. Types of crystalline solids: metallic, ionic, covalent and molecolar. Defects in the crystals. Allotropy, polymorfism and isomorfism.

6 Solutions

General properties of the solutions. Different ways to indicate the concentrations of the solutes. Raoult's law. Colligative properties. Osmotic pression. Dissociaton ans association of the solutes.

7 Chemical thermodinamics

Definition of system, heat and work. Internal energy and enthalpy. Laws of the thermochemistry. Thelaws of thermodinamics. Entropy.Gibbs free energy. Equilibrium.

8 Chemical equilibrium

Equilibrium inhomogeneous systems. Equilibrium constant and its dependance on the temperature. Heterogeneous equilibria. Rule of the phases. Systems of one component. Binary systems formed by liquidis miscible in every ratio or quite immiscible. Solid-liqquid binary systems.

9 Ionic equilibria

Solubility-product. The nature of the acids and of the bases. Ionization of the water .pH and its determination. Dissociation of the acids and of the bases either strong and weak in diluted aqueous solutions. Hydrolitic equilibria.pH indicators. Acid-basis titration curves. Buffer solutions. Amphoteric substances.

10 Chemical kinetics

Reaction rates and features influencing them. Reaction order. Influence of the temperature on the reaction rate. Catalysis. Reaction mechanisms.

11 Electrolytic and galvanic cells

Electrolytic cells. Galvanic cells. Standard reduction potentials. Reference electrodes. Calculation of the f.e.m. of a cell.

12 Inorganic chemistry

General properties of the groups. General properties of the most important elements of the main and transition groups and of their most important compounds. Processes of industrial relevance.

Stoichiometry. Molecular and atomic mass, mole, chemical equations and balancing methods. Empirical formula, purity, limiting reagent and yield. Ideal and real gases laws and their applications. Concentrations, units and colligative properties. Thermochemical equations and spontaneity of a reaction. Chemical equilibrium in gas phase. Equilibrium constants and Le Chatelier principle. Equilibria in solution: acid-base equilibria, hydrolysis, buffers, titrations, solubility of salts. Galvanic and electrolitic cells. Activation energy, order of a reaction. Laboratory activities: 1. Synthesis of zinc iodide from elements 2. Composition of the solutions and their preparation. 3. Reactivity of inorganic compounds. 4. Titration curves of strong acid / strong baseand weak acid / weak base 5. Qualitative analysis for cations (group 1). 6. Qualitative analysis for cations (group 2).


One among:

P. ATKINS e L. JONES, Principi di Chimica, Casa Editrice Zanichelli

FUSI, BACCHI, GIORGI, MARCHETTI, MESSORI, PAOLI, PUNZO, SORTINO, TOLAZZI - Chimica generale e Inorganica, Casa Editrice Idelson-Gnocchi, 2011

A.M. MANOTTI LANFREDI e A. TIRIPICCHIO, Fondamenti di Chimica, Casa Editrice Ambrosiana

P. Zanello-R.Gobetto-R.Zanoni, Conoscere la chimica, CEA, 2009

ATKINS, JONES - Chimica Generale - Zanichelli

R.H. PETRUCCI e W.S. HARWOOD, Chimica Generale, Casa Editrice Piccin


KW Whitten, RE Davis, ML Peck, GG Stanley - Chimica Generale - Piccin, 2004

R Chang, Fondamenti di Chimica generale, McGraw-Hill, 2009

J. Burdge, CHIMICA, Casa editrice Ambrosiana, 2010

Maurizio BruschiStechiometria e laboratorio di chimica generale - Ed PearsonP. Michelin Lausarot, G.A. Vaglio - Stechiometria per la Chimica Generale - Ed. PiccinP. Giannoccaro, S. Doronzo - Elementi di Stechiometria (II Ed.) - EdiSES Ed.M. Giomini, E. Balestrieri, M. Giustini - Fondamenti di Stechiometria - EdiSES Ed.

Teaching methods

Lectures. there are 72 hours of lectures and 12 hours of tutoring. Multimedia resources are employed and students are encourage to take advantage of free software for visualization and manipulation of molecular tsructures.
During the lectures, the methodology to solve exercises of stoichiometry related to the topics of the course will be described and discussed. During the course, the exercises will be constantly linked to the topics of the course of General and Inorganic Chemistry. Within the course, a series of laboratory activities are planned. The activities are essentially individual activities, and have the aim to provide the students with both the knowledge on the principal techniques in the chemical laboratory, and with the autonomy to find solution to practical problems and to plan individually the lab activities. The students will develop the capacity to report their activities by the preparation of a lab notebook. Finally, tutor activities will be planned, as lectures where the students have the possibility to place questions to the teacher. This will allow the students to face the problems in a guided way both through their individual study and through group activities.

Assessment methods and criteria

The exam is composed by a written part aimed to ascertain the knowledge, followed by an oral part. The written exam is on 12 questions of the general chemistry program + 3 exercises of the lab program. The written exam is passed with 18/30 scores on both the parts. The oral part is aimed to ascertain the ability to apply knowledge.

It consists of a written test, composed of two sections as follows, and a colloquium.
-12 open questions on the topics of the course of General and Inorganic Chemistry
-3 excercises on the topics of the course of Laboratory of General and Inorganic Chemistry

The grade of the test will be weighted as 3/5 the grade of the first section, and 2/5 the grade of the second section. The minimum grade has to be obtained however for both sections individually to pass the test. In case of fail of the test, the student will be asked to retake the test and the colloquium.
The written test will be followed by an oral exam (colloquium) on the topics of both the courses of General and Inorganic Chemistry and Laboratory. In case of fail of the colloquium, the student will be asked to retake the test and the colloquium.
The final grade will be an average of the grades of the test and of the colloquium.

As regards the topics of the Laboratory of General and Inorganic Chemistry, the student will be asked to demonstrate to have acquired:
- fundamental concepts
- skills in presenting the concepts using an adequate approach and consistent with this field of study
- capacity to connect the different concepts, demonstrating the ability to find individually the solutions to problems
- capacity to use textbooks, handouts and data on websites, and the capacity to critically evaluate this material
- knowledge in the fundamental techniques in the chemical laboratory
- capacity to describe in a written form (reports) their lab activities, and to integrate it with the theoretical concepts.

Other information

Part of the didactic material is available online for the students.

Teachers are available upon request for discussions and clarifications about specific topics.