## Learning objectives

Knowledge and understanding

The Course presents basic concepts and tools for structural design, with reference to statically determinate and indeterminate elastic frames (beam systems).

Applying knowledge and understanding

At the end of the Course, each student should be able to determine the safety level of the above structures.

Communication skills

At the end of the Course, each student should know all the technical words related to the topics treated.

## Prerequisites

Analisi A-B, Analisi C, Geometria, Meccanica Razionale

## Course unit content

The topics treated in the Course are the following ones:

- Geometry of areas

- Simple (beams) and complex (frames) structural systems

- Statically determinate framed structures

- Internal beam reactions

- Particular problems

- Analysis of stresses

- Analysis of strains

- The theorem of virtual work

- Theory of elasticity

- Strength criteria

- The problem of De Saint-Venant

- Computation of displacements for framed structures

- Statically indeterminate framed structures

- Instability of elastic equilibrium

## Full programme

- Geometry of areas. Introduction. Static moment and centroid. Moments of inertia. Laws of transformation. Principal axes and moments of inertia. Mohr’s circle.

Exercises

- Simple (beams) and complex (frames) structural systems. Plane beams and frames. Problem of structural system equilibrium: kinematic definition of plane constraints; static definition of plane constraints (constraint reactions) and cardinal equations of statics. Framed structures: statically determinate (or isostatic); hypostatic; statically indeterminate (or hyperstatic). Principle of superposition.

Exercises

- Statically determinate framed structures. Three methods: cardinal equations of statics; auxiliary equations; the principle of virtual work.

Exercises

- Internal beam reactions. Three methods: direct method; differential method (indefinite equations of equilibrium for plane beams); the principle of virtual work. Diagrams of characteristics of internal beam reactions.

Exercises

- Particular problems. Closed-frame structures. Plane trusses. Symmetric frames.

Exercises

- Analysis of stresses (for three-dimensional solids). Stress tensor, equations of Cauchy, law of reciprocity. Principal stress directions, Mohr’s circles. Plane stress condition and Mohr’s circle. Boundary conditions of equivalence and indefinite equations of equilibrium.

Exercises

- Analysis of strains (for three-dimensional solids). Rigid displacements, strain tensor. Strain components: dilatations and shearing strains. Principal strain directions. Equations of compatibility.

Exercises

- The theorem of virtual work (for three-dimensional solids).

Exercises

- Theory of elasticity (for deformable three-dimensional solids). Real work of deformation, elastic material, linear elasticity, homogeneity and isotropy, linear elastic constitutive equations. Real work of deformation: Clapeyron’s theorem; Betti’s theorem. The problem of a linear elastic body: solution uniqueness theorem (or Kirckhoff’s theorem).

Exercises

- Strength criteria. Criteria by Rankine, Grashof, Tresca, von Mises.

Exercises

- The problem of De Saint-Venant. Fundamental hypotheses, indefinite equations of equilibrium, elasticity equations and boundary conditions. Centred axial force, flexure (bending moment), biaxial flexure, eccentric axial force, torsion, bending and shearing force.

Exercises

- Computation of displacements for framed structures. Differential equation of the elastic line; theorem of virtual work for deformable beams; thermal distortions and constraint settlements.

Exercises

- Statically indeterminate framed structures. Theorem of virtual work: structures subjected to loads, thermal distortions and constraint settlements.

Exercises

- Instability of elastic equilibrium. Euler’s critical load and free length of deflection; omega method.

Exercises

## Bibliography

Recommended books:

- A. CARPINTERI. "Scienza delle Costruzioni", Vol. 1 e 2, Ed. Pitagora, Bologna.

- E. VIOLA: "Esercitazioni di Scienza delle Costruzioni", Ed. Pitagora, Bologna.

All books are available by the library (Biblioteca Politecnica di Ingegneria e Architettura).

Additional books:

- M. CAPURSO: "Lezioni di Scienza delle Costruzioni", Ed. Pitagora, Bologna.

- V. FRANCIOSI: "Fondamenti di Scienza delle Costruzioni ", Ed. Liguori, Napoli.

- A. MACERI: "Scienza delle Costruzioni", Accademica, Roma.

- A. CASTIGLIONI, V. PETRINI, C. URBANO: "Esercizi di Scienza delle Costruzioni", Ed. Masson Italia, Milano.

All books are available by the library (Biblioteca Politecnica di Ingegneria e Architettura).

Additional educational material:

- Documentation provided by the teacher (Centro Documentazione - Ingegneria – Sede Didattica).

## Teaching methods

The Course consists of theoretical lectures and practical tutorials. For each topic treated in the Course, exercises are planned so that each student can determine the solutions of the theoretical problems explained just before such practical tutorials.

## Assessment methods and criteria

The final test consists of a written test and an oral test.

Such a final test is weighted as follows:

- written test: 50% application of theoretical concepts to practical cases, i.e. exercises (practical skill);

- oral test: 40% questions on theoretical concepts (theoretical skill); 10% ability to present scientific topics (communication skill).

## Other information

Students are strongly recommended to attend all lectures and tutorials.