cod. 1009814

Academic year 2023/24
3° year of course - First semester
Academic discipline
Biochimica clinica e biologia molecolare clinica (BIO/12)
Medicina di laboratorio e diagnostica integrata
Type of training activity
20 hours
of face-to-face activities
2 credits
course unit

Integrated course unit module: Laboratory Medicine & Immunogenetics

Learning objectives

The course aims to allow the student to know, understand and be able to: 1. Evaluate the analytical (pre-analytical and analytical variability) and biological circumstances that may lead to an incorrect interpretation of the laboratory results,
2. Interpret the main laboratory tests provided by a Clinical Laboratory,
3. Correlate the laboratory data and the different physiopathological situations.


Knowledge of the fundamental concepts of Biochemistry, Physiology and General Pathology

Course unit content

The topics covered in the course:
The meaning of Clinical Biochemistry in medical diagnostics. The logic of laboratory diagnostics, the reasons for applying for laboratory tests.
Total quality in the laboratory: analytical quality, choice and verification of analytical methods. Types of variability: pre-analytical, analytical, post-analytical, biological.
Interpretation of laboratory analyses: the meaning of reference values and their obtainment, diagnostic characteristics of laboratory tests.
Parameters for evaluating the hydro-electrolytic balance, acid-base balance, and correlation with pathological conditions.
Clinical enzymology.
Clinical aspects of carbohydrate, lipid and nitrogen metabolisms.
The chemical-clinical profile: complete blood count, serum protein electrophoresis, non-protein nitrogen, serum enzymes, and urine analysis.
Organ-specific clinical biochemistry.

Full programme

The meaning of Clinical Biochemistry in medical diagnostics.
General organization of the clinical laboratory.

Pre-analytical phase
- patient preparation, biological samples, collection, storage and treatment
- the primary source of pre-analytical variability and interference factors
- intra and inter-biological variability

Analytical variability
- analytical characteristics of laboratory methods and their evaluation
- analytical principles of some standard laboratory test
- quality assurance

Interpretation of laboratory tests
- reference intervals, decisional limits,
- diagnostic specificity and sensibility, ROC curves

The most common laboratory tests, the role of the laboratory in the diagnosis and monitoring of some relevant diseases
- Parameters for evaluating the hydro-electrolytic balance and acid-base balance
- Laboratory test for diabetes management
- Dyslipidemias
- Tests for liver function
- Tests for kidney function
- Cardiac biomarkers
- Biomarkers for bone disorders
- Serum proteins and inflammation biomarkers
- Principles of clinical enzymology
- Urinalysis


Clinical Biochemistry (Lecture Notes) Peter Rae, Mike Crane, Rebecca Pattenden,

Tietz Fundamentals of Clinical Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, Rifai N, Horvath AR, Wittwer CT. eds, Elsevier

Teaching methods

During face-to-face lectures, it will illustrate and discuss the different topics of the program. Students' reception for elucidations only by appointment.

Assessment methods and criteria

The assessment of the achievement of the objectives of the course consists of a written examination of the entire program of the Clinical Biochemistry module. The criterion for measuring learning will be based on the answers' relevance, clarity, and completeness.

Other information

- - -