BIOCHEMISTRY
cod. 1009779

Academic year 2021/22
1° year of course - First semester
Professor
- Lorella FRANZONI
Academic discipline
Biochimica (BIO/10)
Field
"struttura, funzione e metabolismo delle molecole d'interesse biologico"
Type of training activity
Basic
30 hours
of face-to-face activities
3 credits
hub: PIACENZA
course unit
in ENGLISH

Integrated course unit module: Physico-Chemical Bases of Life

Learning objectives

This Course focuses on the foundation concepts of Chemistry and will explore the application in the Life Sciences.
On completion of the Course, Students should be able to:
• understand the fundamental principles of Chemistry;
• apply mathematical concepts to chemical problems;
• convey facts, theories and results about Chemistry in written form;
• apply the fundamental principles of Chemistry to the Life Sciences, the environment, as well as to everyday situations;
• describe the general characteristics of elements, molecules, and chemical reactions relevant to Biochemistry and Life Sciences;
• understand the influence and role of structure in reactivity of biomolecules;
• employ modern library search tools to locate and retrieve primary chemical literature on a topic.

Prerequisites

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Course unit content

INTRODUCTION TO CHEMISTRY
ATOMIC STRUCTURE
THE PERIODIC TABLE
CHEMICAL BONDING
NAMING AND WRITING FORMULAS FOR CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS
REDOX REACTIONS
SOLUTIONS
CHEMICAL KINETICS
CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM
ACIDS AND BASES
WATER SELF-IONIZATION AND pH
BUFFER SOLUTIONS
ORGANIC CHEMISTRY

Full programme

INTRODUCTION TO CHEMISTRY
Matter: pure substances (elements and compounds), mixtures (homogeneous and heterogeneous). Composition of the Atom: electrons, protons and neutrons. Atomic number, mass number, isotopes. Molecules and molecular formulas. Atomic and molecular masses. Mole and molar mass. Discussion of video.
Examples in everyday life: face mask N95 coronavirus;

ATOMIC STRUCTURE
How small is an atom?
Development of atomic theory: quantization of energy, uncertainty principle, wave-particle duality. Modern atomic theory: the Bohr atom. Principal energy levels, sublevels, and atomic orbitals. Electron configurations.
3D representation of atomic orbitals.

THE PERIODIC TABLE
The Periodic Table of chemical elements. Groups, periods, blocks. Metals, non-metals, noble gases. Electron arrangement. Periodic properties of elements: atomic radius, ionization energy, electron affinity, electronegativity.
Valence electrons and the octet rule. Ion formation and the octet rule.
Interactive Periodic table

CHEMICAL BONDING
Bonding basics, types of chemical bonds. Covalent bonding: single and multiple covalent bonds; pure, polar and dative covalent bonds; molecular dipole; Lewis structures. Molecular polarity.
Molecular shape: VSEPR theory.
Hybridization and hybrid orbitals.
Molecular orbitals (σ and π). Structure and properties of covalent compounds.
Ionic bond, structure and properties of ionic compounds, lattice energy in ionic solids.
Metallic bonding.
Weak chemical bonds: between molecules (dipole-dipole interactions, Van der Waals forces), between ions and molecules, hydrogen bonding.

NAMING AND WRITING FORMULAS FOR CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS
Writing formulas for chemical compounds; naming compounds

REDOX REACTIONS
Oxidation-reduction reactions: transfer of electrons between two species. Oxidation number: definition, rules and examples. The meaning of oxidation and reduction. Balancing redox reactions.

SOLUTIONS
Properties of solutions. Solubility and saturation. Concentration of solutions: mass/mass percent, mass/volume percent, volume/volume percent, molarity, molality, normality, mole fraction. Dilutions. Colligative properties of solutions: wapor pressure lowering, boiling point elevation, freezing point depression.
Osmosis and osmotic pressure. Dialysis and hemodialysis.

CHEMICAL KINETCS
Chemical kinetics. The rate of a chemical reaction. Chemical kinetics in everyday life.
Factors affecting reaction rates. Rate law and order of reaction. Activation energy and Arrhenius equation. Collision theory and transition state theory. Catalysts; enzymes: biological catalyst. How enzymes work.

CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM
Reversible reactions. Chemical equilibrium, a dynamic state.
The law of mass action; the reaction quotient and the equilibrium constant. Factors affecting the chemical equilibrium (changing in concentration, temperature, pressure): Le-Chatelier's principle.

ACIDS AND BASES
Acids and bases. Arrhenius theory, Bronsted and Lowry theory; concepts of conjugate acid-base pairs. Lewis theory of acids and bases. Strength of acids and bases. Acid-base equilibria.
Acid and basic ionization constants (Ka and Kb).

WATER SELF-IONIZATION AND pH
Self-ionization equilibrium and ion-product constant of water. Concept of pH. Determination of pH using acid-base indicators and by pH meters.
Calculating the pH of strong and weak acid aqueous solutions. Calculating the pH of strong and weak base aqueous solutions.

BUFFER SOLUTIONS
Buffer solutions: concept, properties, reactions. pH calculation of buffer solutions.
Buffer systems in body fluids

ORGANIC CHEMISTRY
Introduction to Organic Chemistry: hybrid orbitals of carbon, molecular and structural formulas, types of reaction (substitution, addition, elimination), electrophiles and nucleophiles reagents.
Hydrocarbons classification. Structure, IUPAC nomenclature, physical properties and characteristic reactions of: Alkanes, Cycloalkanes, Alkenes and alkynes.
Benzene: structure, concept of aromaticity and properties. Benzene reactivity and most important substitution reactions.
Functional groups and classification of Organic compounds.
Nomenclature, physico-chemical properties and main characteristic reactions of the following classes of compounds: Alcohols, Ethers, Aldehydes and Ketones, Carboxylic acids and derivatives (esters, amides), Amines.

Bibliography

All the lectures are supported by Power Point presentations and videos; to download teaching material, see the Elly platform, https://elly2021.medicina.unipr.it/

Teaching methods

All the lectures are supported by Power Point presentations and videos; to download teaching material, see the Elly platform, https://elly2021.medicina.unipr.it/

Assessment methods and criteria

The level of achievement in learning objectives will be evaluated by a single written exam, consisting of Stoichiometry exercises and open questions. The knowledge and understanding of the Course contents by the Students will be assessed through questions on the topics included in the whole Course.

Other information

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