cod. 1008823

Academic year 2022/23
3° year of course - First semester
Professor responsible for the course unit
PASQUARELLA Cesira Isabella Maria
integrated course unit
8 credits
hub: PARMA
course unit

Learning objectives

With reference to the specific subjects: knowledge and understanding;
applying knowledge and understanding; making judgements;
communication skills; learning skills.


Exam of "Principi di prevenzione"

Course unit content

The course is divided into four modules: "Health organization"; "Epidemiological methods applied to prevention", "Health promotion and health education, "Organization of environmental services".
In the "Health organization" module the main elements of national and international health organization and legislation are dealt with. The "Organization of environmental services" module which will see the specific reference to the environmental serviceswithin the National Health Servce.
The module "Epidemiological methods applied to prevention" concerns the epidemiological methodology in the study of health phenomena, in the identification of risk factors and protective factors and in the planning of preventive and health promotion interventions and their evaluation.
The "Health promotion and health education" module deals with the fundamental aspects of health education and health promotion, with reference to the Ottawa Charter, with particular focus on cardiovascular diseases.

Full programme

What is a health system and what are the main types at an international level?
What are the most relevant health regulations in Italy?
What is the Italian National Health Service and how is it organized?
What is a USL?
What are the Essential Levels of Assistance (LEA)?
The articulations of the National Health Service
Which are the main State Organizations that deal with health?
What are the tasks of the Ministry of Health?
What are the tasks of other state bodies that deal with health?
How is healthcare organized at the level of regions and autonomous provinces?
What are health agencies?
What is a hospital?
What are the characteristics of hospitals?
What is an Emergency, Urgency and Acceptance Department (DEA)?
What are IRCCS and how are they organized?
What are the management bodies of the Health Authorities?
What are the functions and the professional requirements of the General Manager and the Health Director?
What are Health Districts and how is territorial health care organized?
What is the role of the General Practitioner?
How is hospital-territory integration implemented and with what tools?
Health planning in Italy
What is meant by health planning?
What is the National Health Plan and what are its contents?
What features do Regional Health Plans have?
What is the National Prevention Plan and what are the main contents?
How is health planning implemented locally?
What is a Budget Document?
What is the International Disease Classification (ICD)?
What is an SDO?
What are DRGs?
Why classify patients?
How are hospital performances measured?
What does "accreditation" of a healthcare facility mean?
What is meant by risk assessment and risk management?
Economics and Management in Healthcare
What is the National Health Fund and what is the evolution of healthcare spending in Italy?
What is meant by health economics?
How is the need, demand and supply in healthcare defined?
How is quality defined in healthcare?
What is the definition of appropriateness?
What is meant by clinical governance?
What is Health Technology Assessment?
International Health and Global Health
What is meant by globalization and health?
What are the main international health organizations?
What are the aims and structure of the World Health Organization?
What are the international health cooperation actions?
What are the main international health guidelines?
What is meant by "One Health"?

“One Health” approach in the reality of Italian Institutions.
Health and Environment in Italian legislation: from the Italian health laws of the first half of 1900s to the law n. 833 of 1978 which established the National Health System; from the Provincial Hygiene and Prophylaxis Laboratories to the Referendum of 1993 and subsequent establishment of the National Environmental Protection Agency.
The National Prevention Plan and the LEA "Collective Prevention and Public Health":activities and services aimed at protecting the health and safety of the community from infectious and environmental risks, linked to working conditions, related to lifestyles, with particular reference at the intervention level: Protection of the health and safety of open and confined environments.
Notes on:
- Health protection in the use of public swimming pools or for public use;
- Health protection in the use of bathing water;
- Hygienic-sanitary evaluation of the urban planning and regulation tools;
- Protection of health from risk factors present in the living environment, not confined;
- Protection of health and safety of civilian homes;
- Promotion of road safety;
- Protection of the hygienic and safety conditions of buildings for school and recreational use;
- Protection of the hygienic and safety conditions of the structures intended for health and social-health activities;
- Health and hygiene protection of Spas;
- Protection of the population and workers from the "asbestos" risk;
- Prevention and safety in the use of toxic gases;
- Prevention and safety in the use of ionizing and non-ionizing radiation;
- Health protection from risks for the population deriving from the use of chemicals, preparations and articles (REACH);
- Preparation of emergency response systems from natural or provoked phenomena (climatic and nuclear, biological, chemical, radiological);
- Protection of the community from radon risk.
Examples of local agreements between the Regional Agency for Environmental Protection (ARPA) and the Local Health Unit (AUSL).


Definition, scope and uses of epidemiology.
Descriptive epidemiological measures.
The sources of the statistical-epidemiological data.
Epidemiological studies: case report, current statistical data analysis, ecological studies, cross-sectional studies, case-control studies, cohort studies, experimental studies.
Epidemiological study design.
Bias in epidemiology.
The management of an epidemic.


General description of health promotion and education, following the general guidelines expressed in the 1st international conference on Health Promotion (Ottawa 1986).
Common cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension, myocardial hypertrophy, heart failure and infarction, the risk factors (nutrition, pollution) and preventive modalities for the person and the community.


Signorelli C et al. Igiene e Sanità Pubblica. Società Editrice Universo, Roma, 2021.

Tarsitani G, Signorelli C, Mastroeni I. Igiene, Epidemiologia e Sanità Pubblica. 5000 Quesiti a scelta multipla. SocietàEditrice Universo Roma, 2012.

Didactic material will be provided and downloadable from the ELLY website.

Teaching methods

Lectures will be held on-site in compliance with safety standards, provided that further instructions on the ongoing health emergency are not implemented. Supporting material will be available on the specific, student-reserved platform (Elly)

Assessment methods and criteria

Written exam in which the knowledge, skills and abilities acquired during the course will be evaluated. The test consists of 31 multiple choice questions.
In case of the persistence of the health emergency, the exams will be conducted remotely by using Teams and Elly platforms.
Students with SLD / BSE must first contact Le Eli- che: support for students with disabilities, D.S.A., B.E.S. ( eli-che- supporto-studenti-con-disabilita-dsa-bes)

Other information

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