cod. 1010291

Academic year 2023/24
2° year of course - Second semester
Professor responsible for the course unit
PETRONINI Pier Giorgio
integrated course unit
8 credits
hub: PARMA
course unit

Course unit structured in the following modules:

Learning objectives

The objectives of the course are to enable the acquisition of knowledge
and understanding about etio-pathogenetic mechanisms of human
diseases, etio-pathogenesis of tumours and the mechanisms of
immunological response (innate and adaptive). Great emphasis will be
given to molecular pathology, oncology and immunology in order to allow
the student to apply the knowledge gained to the future clinical activity.


- - -

Course unit content

General Pathology and Immunology. Environmental and genetic etiology.
Cellular alterations of growth and differentiation. Necrosis and apoptosis.
Molecular and cellular oncology. Blood physiopathology and
hematopoiesis. Innate and acquired Immunology. Immunological tolerance and autoimmune diseases.Transplantation,
Immunodeficiencies and Hypersensitivity. Clinical and diagnostic

Full programme

Health and homeostasis, homeostasis alterations. Proliferation, survival
and cell death. Cell differentiation. The molecular mechanisms of
mutations and DNA repair. Environmental Pathology:
physical, chemical and biological causes of disease.
Blood and Hematopoiesis. Blood physiopathology: anemias, leucocytes
Cellular alterations of growth and differentiation. Hyperplasia,
hypertrophy, atrophy, metaplasia, dysplasia.
Neoplasia. Definitions and nomenclature. Benign and malignant
neoplasms. Grading and staging of tumors. Molecular basis of cancer.
Oncogenic DNA and RNA virus. Protooncogenes, oncogenes and
oncoproteins. Tumor suppressor genes. Survival and pro-apoptotic
genes. DNA repair genes. Molecular basis of multistep carcinogenesis.
Angiogenesis. Tumor progression. Invasion and metastasis. Chemical
carcinogenesis: initiation and promotion. Carcinogenic chemicals.
Radiation carcinogenesis. Microbial carcinogenesis. Genetic
predisposition to cancer. Innate immunity. Acquired immunity. Antigens.
The structural and functional aspects of Antibodies. T and B lymphocytes
and their receptors. The Major Histocompatibility System (MHC).
Activation of B and T lymphocytes. Anatomy of the immune response.
The production of effectors of the immune response: antibodies, TH1,
TH2, TH17, TC lymphocytes, T suppressors, cytokines.
Immunity to bacteria, virus and protozoa. Infection with SARS-Cov-2 and
COVID-19. Congenital and
acquired Immunodeficiencies. Immunologic tolerance and pathogenesis
of autoimmune diseases. Tumor immunology. Transplantation.
Mechanisms of hypersensitivity reactions, immediate, antibody-mediated,
immunecomplex-mediated and cell mediated.
Immunoemathology :ABO blood groups and serum antibodies. The rhesus
(Rh) blood groups. Other blood groups. Haemolytic disease of the


Robbins e Cotran: Le Basi Patologiche delle Malattie. Edra IX edizione.
Abbas, Lichtman, Pillai “Immunologia cellulare e molecolare” Edra IX edizione
Dianzani, Pucillo "Immunologia e Immunopatologia" edi-ermes I edizione

Teaching methods

Lectures will be held on-site. Supporting material will be available on the specific,
student-reserved platform (Elly).
The topics in the program will be presented and discussed through
lectures trying to involve the student so that it can be an active part of
the lesson.
The teacher is available for further explanations in office or by distance
via Teams after e-mail appointment, or via chat on Elly platform.

Assessment methods and criteria

Learning outcomes will be verified through a multiple-choise written test
followed by an oral examination. Questions on the topics relating to the
course will be used to test knowledge and understanding of the student
in the scientific discipline, and her/his ability to apply such knowledge
and understanding in occupational contexts.
Students with Specific Learning Disorders must contact the University Reception and Inclusion Centre in advance (

Other information

- - -