cod. 1006165

Academic year 2021/22
2° year of course - Second semester
Professor responsible for the course unit
PETRONINI Pier Giorgio
integrated course unit
8 credits
hub: PARMA
course unit

Course unit structured in the following modules:

Learning objectives

The objectives of the course are to enable the acquisition of knowledge
and understanding about etio-pathogenetic mechanisms of human
diseases, etio-pathogenesis of tumours and the mechanisms of
immunological response (innate and adaptive). Great emphasis will be
given to molecular pathology, oncology and immunology in order to allow
the student to apply the knowledge gained to the future clinical activity.


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Course unit content

General Pathology and Immunology. Environmental and genetic etiology.
Cellular alterations of growth and differentiation. Necrosis and apoptosis.
Molecular and cellular oncology. Blood physiopathology and
hematopoiesis. Innate and acquired Immunology. Immunological
t o l e r a n c e a n d a u t o i m m u n e d i s e a s e s . T r a n s p l a n t a t i o n ,
Immunodeficiencies and Hypersensitivity. Clinical and diagnostic

Full programme

Health and homeostasis, homeostasis alterations. Proliferation, survival
and cell death. Cell differentiation. The molecular mechanisms of
mutations and DNA repair. Environmental Pathology:
physical, chemical and biological causes of disease.
Blood and Hematopoiesis. Blood physiopathology: anemias, leucocytes
Cellular alterations of growth and differentiation. Hyperplasia,
hypertrophy, atrophy, metaplasia, dysplasia.
Neoplasia. Definitions and nomenclature. Benign and malignant
neoplasms. Grading and staging of tumors. Molecular basis of cancer.
Oncogenic DNA and RNA virus. Protooncogenes, oncogenes and
oncoproteins. Tumor suppressor genes. Survival and pro-apoptoticc
genes. DNA repair genes. Molecular basis of multistep carcinogenesis.
Angiogenesis. Tumor progression. Invasion and metastasis. Chemical
carcinogenesis: initiation and promotion. Carcinogenic chemicals.
Radiation carcinogenesis. Microbial carcinogenesis. Genetic
predisposition to cancer. Innate immunity. Acquired immunity. Antigens.
The structural and functional aspects of Antibodies. T and B lymphocytes
and their receptors. The Major Histocompatibility System (MHC).
Activation of B and T lymphocytes. Anatomy of the immune response.
The production of effectors of the immune response: antibodies, TH1,
TH2, TH17, TC lymphocytes, T suppressors, cytokines.
Immunity to bacteria, virus and protozoa. Infection with SARS-Cov-2 and COVID-19. Congenital and
acquired Immunodeficiencies. Immunologic tolerance and pathogenesis
of autoimmune diseases. Tumor immunology. Transplantation.
Mechanisms of hypersensitivity reactions, immediate, antibody-mediated,
immunecomplex-mediated and cell mediated.
Immunoemathology :ABO blood groups and serum antibodies. The rhesus
(Rh) blood groups. Other blood groups. Haemolytic disease of the


Robbins e Cotran: Le Basi Patologiche delle Malattie. Edra IX
Abbas, Lichtman, Pillai “Immunologia cellulare e molecolare” IX edizione. Edra

Teaching methods

The topics in the program will be presented and discussed through lectures, with the aid of iconographic material, trying to involve the student so that it can be an active part of the lesson.
According to the regulation of the Italian Government and the University of Parma about the COVID-19 pandemics, the present course is realized with frontal lessons via mixed in-presence and at-distance modality. In particular, the teacher takes lessons in the classroom with the help of PC (Powerpoint slides) ; simultaneous connection of the PC to the Teams platform in streaming modality ensures connection with students not present in the classroom. Each lesson is registered and loaded in the Elly portal of the course, together with the slides.
The teacher is available for further explanations in office or by distance via Teams after e-mail appointment, or via chat on Elly platform.

Assessment methods and criteria

Learning outcomes will be verified through a multiple-choise written test followed by an oral examination. Questions on the topics relating to the course will be used to test knowledge and understanding of the student in the scientific discipline, and her/his ability to apply such knowledge and understanding in occupational contexts.
In case the COVID-related sanitary emergence continues, the examination will proceed on the Teams platform (see the guidelines at the address:

Other information

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