CHEMISTRY AND TECHNOLOGY OF INDUSTRIAL PROCESSES AND ..
cod. 1005984

Academic year 2020/21
1° year of course - First semester
Professor
- Elena MOTTI
Academic discipline
Chimica industriale (CHIM/04)
Field
Discipline chimiche ambientali, biotecnologiche, industriali, tecniche ed economiche
Type of training activity
Characterising
72 hours
of face-to-face activities
9 credits
hub: PARMA
course unit
in ITALIAN

Learning objectives

The course is aimed at:
- provide in-depth knowledge on the most important chemical processes
- provide basic knowledge on chemical process plants: design, management, safety
- provide adequate knowledge on the economic evaluation of a chemical process
- provide comparative and critical evaluations on the environmental sustainability of the process
- provide in-depth knowledge on the main classes of chemical formulas
- provide in-depth knowledge on the ingredients of chemical formulations (synthesis and chemical-physical properties)
- provide a comparative and critical evaluation of the most known formulations on the market

The conceptual tools are provided for a critical understanding of industrial production processes with regard to:
- choice of the process, the plant and the technology to be applied to obtain a chemical intermediate
- choice of the process and the ingredients to be applied to obtain a chemical formulation
- evaluation of total costs
- environmental and safety issues
-problematic related to the packaging materials of intermediates and formulated
The links between the different parts of the course and with courses already followed by the students in previous years and in the current year are highlighted, with particular reference to the contents of physical, organic and industrial chemistry.
The student must be able to evaluate the choice of the process, of the industrial feedstock, of the catalysts, of the technology, of the operating conditions; to understand issues related to production, environmental and safety costs.

During the course, the autonomous judgment and the discussion on the issues are stimulated, with the use of online bibliographic research from accredited sources of primary literature.
The student have to develop autonomous skills that allow him to evaluate, compare, criticize and weigh negative and positive aspects of the industrial chemical processes analyzed, and to think about possible pilot-scale innovations on the market.
The acquisition of a formally correct language is required, the ability to express content in a clear and linear way is encouraged.

Prerequisites

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Course unit content

FIRST PART: PROCESSES
Most important derivatives of ethylene, propylene, butadiene, isobutene, 1-butene, butane, C5 hydrocarbons, benzene, toluene, xylenes, methanol.

Industrial processes for the polymerization of the intermediate base.

Industrial processes for the production of dichloroethane and vinyl chloride.
Oxidation products of the intermediate base and their main derivatives: processes of production of ethylene oxide and of propylene oxide, production processes of ethylene glycol, Wacker process, processes of production of acetic acid and acetic anhydride, production of vinyl acetate, the processes of oxidation and ammoxidation of propylene, production adiponitrile, production processes of acetone, industrial processes for production of methyl methacrylate, the processes of oxo-synthesis, production processes of formaldehyde, production processes of 'maleic anhydride and of butanediol, adipic acid production, oxidation of benzene to phenol, oxidation of toluene to benzoic acid, phthalic anhydride production processes, processes of production of terephthalic acid and dimethyl terephthalate.

Processes of alkylation of benzene with ethylene and propylene: production of ethylbenzene and cumene, styrene production processes, processes of production of phenol, industrial processes for the production of caprolactam.

Industrial processes for the nitration of benzene and toluene, aniline production processes, processes of production of isocyanates.


Main chemical and biochemical processes from biomass, use of enzymes, integration between biotechnology and industrial chemistry.

SECOND PART: FORMULATIONS
Formulations regarding the most important industrial sectors, in particular those most present in the territory.

Detergency: important ingredients; main classes of surfactants.
Examples of detergent products and their formulation.

Cosmetics: classification of cosmetic products and classes of ingredients.
Examples of cosmetic products and critical reading of INCI.

Polymers: main additives.

Drugs: preparation of pharmaceutical products.

Pesticides and agrochemical products.

Paints.

Full programme

FIRST PART: PROCESSES
Most important derivatives of ethylene, propylene, butadiene, isobutene, 1-butene, butane, C5 hydrocarbons, benzene, toluene, xylenes, methanol.

Industrial processes for the polymerization of the intermediate base: production of low density polyethylene (LDPE), high density polyethylene (HDPE), linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE), polypropylene, polybutadiene.

Industrial processes for the production of dichloroethane and vinyl chloride.
Oxidation products of the intermediate base and their main derivatives: processes of production of ethylene oxide and of propylene oxide, production processes of ethylene glycol, Wacker process, processes of production of acetic acid and acetic anhydride, production of vinyl acetate, the processes of oxidation and ammoxidation of propylene, production adiponitrile, production processes of acetone, industrial processes for production of methyl methacrylate, the processes of oxo-synthesis, production processes of formaldehyde, production processes of 'maleic anhydride and of butanediol, adipic acid production, oxidation of benzene to phenol, oxidation of toluene to benzoic acid, phthalic anhydride production processes, processes of production of terephthalic acid and dimethyl terephthalate.

Processes of alkylation of benzene with ethylene and propylene: production of ethylbenzene and cumene, styrene production processes, processes of production of phenol, industrial processes for the production of caprolactam.

Industrial processes for the nitration of benzene and toluene, aniline production processes, processes of production of isocyanates.
Chemical products from biomass: bioethanol, aminoacids, drugs, polymers. Use of enzymes in industry.

SECOND PART: FORMULATIONS
Formulations regarding the most important industrial sectors, in particular those most present in the territory.
Introduction about general principles and multidisciplinarity of the topic, about the product marketing, the application of multivariate analysis, and problems related to scale up.

Detergency: important ingredients; main classes of anionic, cationic, nonionic and amphoteric surfactants; enzymes, dyes, optical brighteners, bases and technological additives.
Indices of detergency, choice of surfactant.Chemico-physical and rheological parameters.
Examples of detergent products and their formulation.
Cosmetics: classification of cosmetic products and classes of ingredients, in particular pigments and fragrances. Long-term shelf life. Use of preservatives, technological additives and preparation processes for powders and liquid products of various viscosities.
Examples of cosmetic products and critical reading of INCI.
Polymers: main additives, plasticizers and antioxidants, salts for lowering the glass transition point. Gums and elastomers and cross-linking additives.
Drugs: preparation of pharmaceutical products, tablets, solutions and phials.
Pesticides and agrochemical products: regulamentary, principal ingredients and technology.
Paints and their ingredients: solvents, polymers, dyes.

Bibliography

Harold A. WITTCOFF, Bryan G. REUBEN, Jeffery S. PLOTKIN Industrial Organic Chemicals, 2nd Ed. Wiley InterScience, July 2004

Philippe ARPENTINIER, Fabrizio CAVANI, Ferruccio TRIFIRO' The Technology of Catalytic Oxidations Vol.1 - Chemical, catalytic & engineering aspects Cap. 6-7-8 Ed. TECHNIP, France 2001

Chemical Formulation: An Overview of Surfactant-Based Preparations Used in Everyday Life 2003- RCS Paperbacks
A. E. Hargreaves

An Introduction to Industrial Chemistry- 2009 Heaton
Springer Ed

Chemical Process Technology, Moulijn, Makkee, Van Diepen, 2013, Wiley Ed

Teaching methods

The course takes place in 72 hours of lessons, which will be organized face to face with the possibility of attending the lessons in asynchronous mode at distance (lessons uploaded on the Elly page of the course); discussion and exercises will be organized for the students who follow remotely (in small groups by appointment on Teams platform).

The slides used during the lessons and other supporting material will be uploaded every week on the Elly platform. To download the slides you need to register for the online course. The slides are considered an integral part of the teaching material.

Non-attending students are reminded to check the teaching material available and the information provided by the teacher through the Elly platform. The teacher is available by appointment (e-mail) for clarification, both remotely and in person.
The course makes use of one or more expert seminars and possibly educational visits to chemical plants that will be promptly communicated to students.

Assessment methods and criteria

The acquired knowledge and the ability to understand the concepts treated are verified through a written and oral examination (remotely or face to face) during which the student must demonstrate that he has understood the chemical processes treated and that he can compare and discuss them in an independent and critical way.
For processes, a lesson on site by students, as flipped classroom, is planned about a topic assigned by the teacher during the lesson period (in presence or remotely).
For formulations, it is requested to explain by a critical and original presentation on a commercial formulation (chosen by student), analyzing the individual ingredients, their production and their environmental sustainability in relation to the cost and disposal of the product and its packaging.

The assessment of learning takes place with two separate exams that affect the final score in the following proportions:
Processes: up to a maximum of 18 points (max 2 points for fliipped classroom lesson)
Formulations: up to a maximum of 12 points.
Process:
A written test consisting of 9 open questions concerning all the topics of the course. Each question has a specific maximum score ranging from 0 to 2.
Examples of tests will be discussed during lessons.
The score obtained is communicated to the student before access to the oral examination.
Only if the score of 10 is reached, the student is admitted to the oral test.
The oral test is on the discussion of any missing or incorrect answers and assigns a total score ranging between 0 to 3.
Formulations:
The student is asked to prepare a multimedial discussion on a commercial formulation, focusing on role issues, and chemical synthesis of ingredients, cost, life cycle, packaging and safety issues for the environment and the health, together with a written critical report.

The laude is awarded in the case of the achievement of a score of 30 only if the candidate demonstrates the ability to argue critically and the ability to connect the different parts of the course. The skills of synthesis, use of a correct technical language and communication will be evaluated positively.

Other information

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