cod. 20729

Academic year 2021/22
3° year of course - Second semester
- Pellegrino CRAFA
Academic discipline
Anatomia patologica (MED/08)
Clinica delle specialità medico-chirurgiche
Type of training activity
10 hours
of face-to-face activities
1 credits
hub: PARMA
course unit

Integrated course unit module: DIGESTIVE PATHOLOGIES

Learning objectives

The student going to be applying knowledge and understanding of the pathological pictures of the digestive and endocrine diseases and for each of them, he/she will correlate the macroscopic and microscopic features to the pathophysiology, making judgments also in the aim of the differential diagnosis.


According to provisions of the degree course

Course unit content

The course will focus on the knowledge and understanding of gross and microscopic pathological features of the digestive diseases with relevant anatomical and clinical correlations.

Full programme

1) Esophagus: Basic of anatomy with particular reference to the upper and lower esophageal sphincters, physiology and pathophysiology elements with particular reference to motor functions, esophageal motility disorders: dyskinesias (classification, clinic, diagnosis), achalasia (epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical , diagnosis, therapy), esophageal diverticula: pulsion (pathogenesis, clinical, complications, diagnosis, therapy), traction and epifrenic (definition and clinical) diverticula, benign tumors (classification, clinic, therapy), malignant tumors (epidemiology, etiology, clinical, diagnosis, staging, therapy), gastro-esophageal reflux (epidemiology, etiology, clinic, diagnosis, therapy), Barrett's esophagus (epidemiology, etiology, clinical, diagnosis, staging, therapy).
2) Diaphragm: diaphragmatic hernias: classification, hiatal hernia (anatomy of the hiatus joint and gastro-esophageal, definition, epidemiology, classification), paraoesophageal hernia (etiology, clinic, diagnosis, therapy), slipped hernia (etiology, clinic, diagnosis , therapy).
3) Stomach: Elements of anatomy, dyspeptic Disease (epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical, diagnosis, therapy), Helicobacter pylori infection (diagnosis, H.P.-related gastritis, therapy), gastritis (etiology and classification), ulcers and surgical complications (bleeding, perforation, penetration, stenosis),, precancerous conditions and tumors (epidemiology, etiology, clinical, diagnosis, staging, therapy, prognosis): adenocarcinoma, lymphoma and neuroendocrine tumors.
4) Pancreas: Elements of anatomy and physiology, Acute Pancreatitis (classification, epidemiology, etiology, pathophysiology, clinical, complications, diagnosis, therapy) signs, chronic and autoimmune pancreatitis (classification, epidemiology, etiology, pathophysiology, clinical complication, diagnosis, therapy), pancreatic exocrine tumors (epidemiology, etiology, clinical, diagnosis, staging, pancreatic pseudocysts (definition, etiology, development, clinical, complications, diagnosis, therapy), hormone-secreting tumors (classification, clinical diagnosis, therapy).
5) Biliary tract: Jaundice and cholestasis (definition, etiology, classification, clinic, differential diagnosis, therapy), Calculus of gallbladder and biliary tract (definition, epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical, complications, therapy), cholecystitis and acute cholangitis (classification, etiology, clinic, diagnosis, therapy) and their complications nods (biliary-digestive fistula, gallstone ileus, benign and malignant stenosis (classification, etiology, clinic, diagnosis, therapy), neoplasms of the gallbladder and biliary tract ( etiology, clinic, diagnosis, therapy), immune-mediated disorders of the bile ducts (primary sclerosing cholangitis and primary biliary cirrhosis (classification, etiology, clinic, diagnosis, therapy).
6) Liver: steatosis, NASH and NAFLD, liver cirrhosis (classification, epidemiology, etiology, clinic, diagnosis, complications, therapy), Wilson's disease and hemochromatosis, hepatitis drug, autoimmune diseases of the liver, benign tumors (classification, epidemiology, clinic, diagnosis, therapy) nods, primary malignant tumors (classification, epidemiology, etiology, clinic, diagnosis, staging, signs of therapy), liver metastases (clinical, diagnostic, therapy).
7) Portal hypertension: Elements of anatomy macroscopic and microscopic of the portal system, pathophysiology, etiology. Esophageal varices (definition, pathological anatomy, classification, diagnosis, bleeding complications, clinical, endoscopic and surgical therapy), splenomegaly and hypersplenism (definition, clinic, therapy), ascites (definition, etiology, clinic, diagnosis, therapy) .
8) Small Intestine: Coeliac disease (Classification, epidemiology, etiology, clinic, diagnosis, complications), malabsorption (classification, epidemiology, etiology, clinic, diagnosis), benign and malignant tumors (classification, etiology, clinic, diagnosis, therapy , prognosis), Meckel's diverticulum (epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical, complications, therapy)
9) Inflammatory bowel disease: Crohn's Disease (classification, epidemiology, etiology, clinic, diagnosis, complications, therapy), ulcerative colitis (classification, epidemiology, etiology, clinic, diagnosis, complications, therapy), indeterminate colitis, SCAD.
10) Vermiform appendix: Acute appendicitis (epidemiology, etiology, clinical, complications, diagnosis and therapy); tumors (classification, clinic, diagnostics, treatment)
11) Colon and rectus: Elements of anatomy and physiology; intestinal microbiota; Irritable Bowel Syndrome (classification, epidemiology, etiology, clinic, diagnosis, therapy); diverticular disease (definition, epidemiology, etiology, pathology, evolution and complications, clinical, diagnostic, therapy, surgical indications); constipation and diarrhea (pathophysiology, etiology, clinical, differential diagnosis, therapy); polyps (classification, epidemiology, clinical, diagnostic, development, therapy); familial polyposis (etiology, development, clinical, diagnostic, therapy); adenoma-carcinoma sequence; tumors (classification, epidemiology, etiology, clinic, diagnosis, therapy, screening, follow-up, prognosis).
12) Anus and perineum: elements of anatomy and physiology, hemorrhoids, anal fissure, perianal abscesses and fistulas (epidemiology, pathogenesis, classification, clinic, diagnosis, therapy); anus neoplasms (epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinic, diagnosis, treatment, staging).
13) Acute Abdomen: definition, pathophysiology of acute abdominal pain, causes according to the site, pain and symptoms associated with differential diagnosis. bowel obstruction: Mechanical and paralytic ileus (etiology, classification, pathophysiology, clinical, diagnosis, therapy). Peritonitis (etiology, classification, pathology, pathophysiology, clinical, diagnosis, therapy).
14) High And Low Digestive Bleeding: definition, etiology, classification, pathophysiology, clinical, diagnosis, therapy.
15) Intestinal ischemia: elements of anatomy of the intestinal vasculature, pathophysiology of the splanchnic arterial circulation, acute and chronic mesenteric ischemia (etiology, pathology, diagnosis, clinic, therapy).
16) Hernia of the Inguinal wall: elements of anatomy, definition, epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical, complications, diagnosis, signs of inguinal hernia treatment, femoral hernia, umbilical hernia, epigastric hernia, hernia Spigelian, lumbar hernia, obturator hernia, incisional hernia.


Robbins and Cotran - Pathologic Basis of Disease, 9th Edition, Elsevier ed.

Teaching methods

There will be formal lectures, interactive activities, internships and additional didactics.
Depending on the legislative provisions in force, it will be possible that the course is delivered as lectures or remotely.

Assessment methods and criteria

Oral examination

Other information