cod. 1004507

Academic year 2016/17
1° year of course - Second semester
Francesca ZIMETTI
Academic discipline
Farmacologia (BIO/14)
Discipline biologiche e farmacologiche
Type of training activity
40 hours
of face-to-face activities
5 credits
hub: PARMA
course unit

Integrated course unit module: PLANT BIOLOGY - PHARMACOGNOSY

Learning objectives

Pharmacognosy class is a part of the Plant Biology/Pharmacognosy course. Its aim is to provide students knowledge and understanding on the technological process, the origin of the drugs, the chemistry of the active compounds and the pharmacological activity and the therapeutic applications of drugs.


The following exams are highly recommended: Anatomy, animal and plant biology

Course unit content

First part: introduction to pharmacognosy and preparation od drugs.
Second part: phytochemistry
Third part: therapeutical applications of drugs.

Full programme

Medicinal plant and crude drug.
Phytocomplex and active compounds. Toxicity.
Basics of general pharmacology: pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic
Traditional medicine and phytotherapy.
Technology of natural medical products:
- harvesting, drying, grinding, squeezing, enfleurage, distillation, extraction.
Drug acquisition and preservation.
Galenical preparations.
Phytochemisty and secondary metabolic pathways
- carbohydrates: mono/polysacchrides, starch, cellulose, gums, mucilages, pectins, destrans, inulin
- glycosides (cardioactive, cyanogenics, sulphurated, antraquinones, saponins).
- alkaloids: purinergics, tropanics, benzylisoquinolics, indolics, quinolinics.
- lipids: oils, fats, waxes. Omega-3 (atherosclerosis) and omega-6 fatty acids
- essential oils
-proteins: enzymes.
Drugs acting on gastrointestinal system
- Aloe spp, Matricaria recutita, Althaea officinalis, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Foeniculum
vulgare, Pimpinella anisum, Illicium verum, Pimpinella Anisum, Ilicium Anisatum, Zingiber officinalis
- Constipation: manna, Rhamnus frangula, Rhamnus purshiana, Cassia spp, Aloe
spp, Rheum spp., aloe spp.
Drugs acting on CNS
- Stimolants: Coffea arabica, Thea sinensis, Theobroma cacao, Cola spp, Ilex
paraguayensis, Paullinia cupana
-Sedative: Valeriana officinalis, Piper methysticum, Passiflora incarnata, Melissa officinalis, humulus lupulus
-antidepressant; Hypericum perforatum
Drugs acting on cardiovascular system
- Antihyperlipidemic plants: Cynara scolimus, Allium sativum, Vaccinium myrtillus,
Commiphora mukulm
- Peripheral vascular disorders : Aesculus hippocastanum, Hamamelis virginiana, Vaccinium myrtillus, Ruscus aculeatus
Drugs acting on respiratory system
- saponins: Hedera helix, Poligala senega.
- essences: Eucaliptus globulus, Melaleuca spp, Menta piperita, Pimpinella anisum, Foeniculum vulgare, Myroxylon pereire, Myroxylon balsamum.
- mucilages: Althaea officinalis.
Drugs active on immune system:
- aloe spp., Eleuterococcus senticosus Maxim, Uncaria tomentosa, Astragalus membranaceus Fisch, Echinacea spp.


M.Tognolini, M.Chiavarini - Principi di Farmacognosia e Fitoterapia - UNINOVA

G. Fassina, E. Ragazzi-Lezione di Farmacognosia Droghe vegetali- CEDAM

F. Firenzuoli- Fitoterapia, guida all'uso delle piante medicinali- MASSON

P.M. Dewick- Chimica, biosintesi e bioattività delle sostanze naturali- Ed PICCIN

Teaching methods

Oral lessons will be accompanied by online bibliographic reseach during the classes, in the attempt to provide students knoweldge on specific database, where information on drugs can be obatined.

Assessment methods and criteria

Oral examination, to be performed together with Plant Biology (as single exam), will allows to ascertain whether students achieve adequate knowledge and understanding.

Other information

- - -