cod. 00624

Academic year 2019/20
1° year of course - Second semester
- Enrico ROLLI
Academic discipline
Biologia farmaceutica (BIO/15)
Discipline biologiche
Type of training activity
40 hours
of face-to-face activities
5 credits
hub: PARMA
course unit

Integrated course unit module: PLANT BIOLOGY - PHARMACOGNOSY

Learning objectives

The course aims to provide the student with the basis for knowledge of the organization of plants, from an evolutionary, anatomical and functional point of view.
The concepts learned can be used by the student to understand other subjects related to plant biology.Knowledge and understanding skills
1) To acquire the basic notions of pharmacognosy (source of active principles, technological processes, phytochemistry, classification of active principles)
2) To remember the botanical name of the plants
Knowledge and understanding skills
1) To acquire the basic notions of pharmacognosy (source of active principles, technological processes, phytochemistry, classification of active principles)
2) To remember the botanical name of the plants
3) To acquire preliminary pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic notions for understanding the pharmacological activity of natural substances.
4) To know the pharmacological activity of the main natural molecules and their mechanisms of action
5) To Acquire ability in using the specific language of the discipline.

Knowledge and understanding applied skills
1) To apply the knowledge of the mechanisms of action of the natural molecules to define their pharmacological activity and use

Judgment autonomy
1) To evaluate the validity of a phytotherapy product in independent manner

Communicative Skills
1) Possess the ability to synthesize information and effectively communicate it to specialists and non-specialists.

Learning Skills
1) Develop skills and methodology that will allow you to study in a highly indipendent way.
2) Updating the knowledge through the consultation of scientific databases


There are not prerequisites. However, the following exams are highly recommended: Human anatomy/animal biology

Course unit content

Development of living organisms and photosynthetic organisms. Types of nutrition. Prokaryotes, cyanobacteria. Endosymbiitic theory. Tallophytes and cormophytes. Main types of plants. Vegetable cell. Plastids, photosynthesis. Cellular wall. Vacuole and secondary metabolism. Vegetable fabrics. Plant anatomy. Stem, root, leaf, flower. Plant growth regulators.First part: introduction to pharmacognosy and preparation od drugs; hints of phytochemistry.
Second part:
clkassification of active principles in the medicinal drugs.
Third part: therapeutical applications of drugs.

Full programme

Individuals autotrophic and heterotrophic.
taxonomy and nomenclature units. Systematics, taxonomy, identification.
Classifications: descriptive systems, morphological, phylogenetic.
Reproduction (asexual, sexual).

Mushrooms. Organization and main biological characteristics

The main divisions of the plant kingdom.
Prokaryotes, eukaryotes.
Thallophyte, cormophytes.

The plastids
Chloroplast: ultrastructure. Photosynthesis.
The cell wall.
The middle lamella
pectic substances
The primary wall
Cellulose and hemicellulose
The secondary wall
Chemical modifications of the wall
Pharmaceutical importance Wall
the vacuole; vacuole functions
the vacuolar juice components
secondary metabolism production of active ingredients in medicinal plants.
meristematic tissue
tegumental tissues
medullary tissue
Conductors tissues
Mechanical tissue
segregatori tissues
The different zones of the stem and root development
Anatomy of the stem
meristematic zone
the primary structure zone
transition from the primary to the secondary structure
secondary structure zone
The omoxilo wood and eteroxilo
Anatomy of root
anatomical differences between root and stem
The flower
Flower anatomy and pollination
The fruit
Anatomy of the main types of fruits
True fruits and false fruits
Leaf Anatomy
Transport solutions
mineral elements and their function in the plant
plant hormones
Tropisms and circadian rhythms
Medicinal plant and crude drug.
Phytocomplex and active compounds. Toxicity.
Basics of general pharmacology: pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic
Traditional medicine phytotherapy and nutraceuticals
Technology of natural medical products:
- harvesting, drying, grinding, squeezing, enfleurage, distillation, extraction.
Drug acquisition and preservation.
Galenical preparations.
Phytochemisty and secondary metabolic pathways
- carbohydrates: mono/polysacchrides, starch, cellulose, gums, mucilages, pectins, destrans, inulin
- glycosides (cardioactive, cyanogenics, sulphurated, antraquinones, saponins).
- alkaloids: purinergics, tropanics, benzylisoquinolics, indolics, quinolinics.
- lipids: oils, fats, waxes. Omega-3 (atherosclerosis) and omega-6 fatty acids
- essential oils
-proteins: enzymes.
Drugs acting on gastrointestinal system
- Aloe spp, Matricaria recutita, Althaea officinalis, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Foeniculum
vulgare, Pimpinella anisum, Illicium verum, Pimpinella Anisum, Ilicium Anisatum, Zingiber officinalis
- Constipation: manna, Rhamnus frangula, Rhamnus purshiana, Cassia spp, Aloe
spp, Rheum spp., aloe spp.
Drugs acting on CNS
- Stimolants: Coffea arabica, Thea sinensis, Theobroma cacao, Cola spp, Ilex
paraguayensis, Paullinia cupana
-Sedative: Valeriana officinalis, Piper methysticum, Passiflora incarnata, Melissa officinalis, humulus lupulus
-antidepressant; Hypericum perforatum
Drugs acting on cardiovascular system
- Antihyperlipidemic plants: Cynara scolimus, Allium sativum, Vaccinium myrtillus,
Commiphora mukulm
- Peripheral vascular disorders : Aesculus hippocastanum, Hamamelis virginiana, Vaccinium myrtillus, Ruscus aculeatus
Drugs acting on respiratory system
- saponins: Hedera helix, Poligala senega.
- essences: Eucaliptus globulus, Melaleuca spp, Menta piperita, Pimpinella anisum, Foeniculum vulgare, Myroxylon pereire, Myroxylon balsamum.
- mucilages: Althaea officinalis.
Drugs active on immune system:
- aloe spp., Eleuterococcus senticosus Maxim, Uncaria tomentosa, Astragalus membranaceus Fisch, Echinacea spp.


Raven al. : BIOLOGIA DELLE PIANTE,sesta edizione. ZANICHELLI
M.Tognolini, M.Chiavarini - Principi di Farmacognosia e Fitoterapia - UNINOVA;

G. Fassina, E. Ragazzi-Lezione di Farmacognosia Droghe vegetali- CEDAM

F. Firenzuoli- Fitoterapia, guida all'uso delle piante medicinali- MASSON

P.M. Dewick- Chimica, biosintesi e bioattività delle sostanze naturali- Ed PICCIN

Teaching methods

The lessons will be mainly frontal, but will be complemented by online bibliographic research in order to provide students with the ability to know reliable databases from which to obtain information onphytotherapy products.
The slides used to support lessons, as an integral part of the teaching material, will be uploaded weekly on the Elly platform.

Assessment methods and criteria

Oral examination, to be performed together with Plant Biology (as single exam).
Oral testing to be supported at the same time as the Plant Biology module (they are a single exam, both modules must be sufficient to overcome it).
Scale of assessment: 0-30
Weights and evaluation criteria:
1) Acquired knowledge (up to 14/30);
2) Ability to apply the acquired knowledge and to make connections between the covered topics (up to 10/30);
3) capacity to communicate concepts through the use of the specific language of the discipline (up to 6/30).

Other information

Reception time

Tuesday 10:00-12:00
Thursday 10:00-12:00
(please notify via phone or email before)

tel: 0521 906172