cod. 1004220

Academic year 2020/21
2° year of course - First semester
- Bianca Maria ROTOLI
Academic discipline
Patologia generale (MED/04)
Discipline del settore biomedico
Type of training activity
48 hours
of face-to-face activities
6 credits
hub: PARMA
course unit

Learning objectives

The course will provide the knowledge necessary to understand the disease processes from a cellular, tissue and apparatus point of view.
The acquired knowledge will allow the student to understand at various levels of complexity the mechanisms of response to damage and the related disorders, as well as the physiopathology of the main categories of pathologies of the human species. Some mention will also be made of the diagnostic possibilities at the level of laboratory investigations.


To understand the contents of the course adequate knowledge of Histology, Anatomy, Biochemistry, Physiology are required

Course unit content

The course will concern:
- Cellular Pathology
- The response to damage: inflammation, haemostasis, repair
- Alterations of the immune system
- Diabetes

Full programme

1) Mechanisms of cell damage and adaptation
- Cell damage
- Oxidative stress and cellular responses
- Intracellular and extracellular accumulations
- ER stress and UPR
- Ischemic-hypoxic damage
- Cell death: necrosis and apoptosis
- Methods for studying cell damage and cell death
- Cellular adaptations: atrophy, hypertrophy, hyperplasia, metaplasia, dysplasia

2) Tissue response to damage

Inflammation: Acute inflammation, vascular alterations, cellular phenomena, chemical mediators, exudate and phagocytosis. Chronic inflammation. Cells and mediators of chronic inflammation, granulomas. Systemic manifestations of inflammation. The acute phase reactions and fever. Tissue repair: cell regeneration, repair and fibrosis. Disorders of the inflammatory response: defects and excesses. Laboratory techniques in the study of inflammation
Haemostasis and its alterations: platelet and plasma phase. Hemorrhagic diseases and DIC. Thrombosis, Embolism, Infarct. Laboratory techniques for the laboratory evaluation of haemostasis
Atherosclerosis: risk factors, mechanisms of atheromatous plaque formation, consequences

3) Alterations of the immune system
- Review of the functional organization of the immune system
- Immunodeficiencies
- Hypersensitivity
- Autoimmunity
- Laboratory techniques in immune pathologies

4) Pathophysiology of diabetes mellitus: Definition and classification of diabetes, Diagnostic criteria, Type I and type II diabetes, Pathogenesis of diabetes complications, Laboratory investigations


- Kumar, Abbas, Fausto, Aster- Robbins e Cotran – Le basi patologiche delle malattie, 8 ed. Elsevier-Masson
References will be provided during specific lessons

Teaching methods

The course will be held through lectures to Students either in the classroom (“in presenza”) or in synchronous-streaming (“in telepresenza”) on the Teams platform. Therefore, the opportunity of Student/Teacher interaction will be preserved both face to face and remotely, by the simultaneous use of the Teams platform.
Lectures will be supported by slide presentations, which will be available to students on the Elly platform (

The course will be carried out with the aid of iconographic material collected in PowerPoint files which, at the end of the course, will be made available to students on the Elly platform. During the lessons the main concepts of each topic will be exposed, encouraging students to ask questions also on the basis of bibliographic references that will be provided.

Assessment methods and criteria

Tests in progress will not be carried out.
The final assessment will be carried out through an oral examination.
In case of the persistence of the health emergency, the exams will be conducted remotely, as follows:
remote oral questions, through the Teams platform (guide
Students with SLD / BSE must first contact Le Eli-che: support for students with disabilities, D.S.A., B.E.S. (

Each student will be asked by different teachers two questions on topics listed in the extended program (one form per teacher).
The inability to answer a question (or at least ascertained inability to provide a correct definition of the pathological phenomenon subject of the application) will result in not passing the exam.

At the end of the response each teacher will formulate a judgment given in brackets:
A. Excellent knowledge and understanding of the topic. High capacity for applying knowledge in bio-medical problems. Vote of thirty: 30.
B. Good knowledge and understanding of the topic. Good ability to apply knowledge in bio-medical problems. Vote of thirty: 27-29.
C. Good knowledge and understanding of the topic. Demonstrated ability to apply the knowledge in bio-medical problems. Vote of thirty: 24-26.
D. Knowledge and understanding of the fully sufficient. Fair ability to apply the knowledge in bio-medical problems. Vote of thirty: 21-23.
E. Knowledge and understanding of the subject just enough with obvious gaps. Poor ability to apply knowledge in bio-medical problems. Vote of thirty: 18-20.
Praise be proposed for the demonstration of independence of judgment, high communication skills and ability to learn independently.

The final vote will be decided by mutual agreement between the two teachers, with the possibility to deviate by a maximum of two points of the average of the individual assessments.

Other information

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