cod. 12472

Academic year 2018/19
1° year of course - Second semester
Academic discipline
Impianti industriali meccanici (ING-IND/17)
Ingegneria meccanica
Type of training activity
72 hours
of face-to-face activities
9 credits
hub: PARMA
course unit

Learning objectives

Knowledge and understanding
At the end of the course, the student will have acquired the basic knowledge relating to food processing plants, knowing the processes and being able to perform a concept design of the same

Applying knoledge and understanding
The student will be able to perform a rough draft a plant in the food industry, and to investigate its main processes, defining the most significant features. The student will be able to use the acquired knowledge to analyze and process numerical data to support their decision-making.

Making judgments
The student will be able to assess the impact of design choices on the costs of applied 'system designed to assess the consequences and positive

Communication skills
The student will acquire specific vocabulary inherent in the design of food processing plants. It is expected that at the end of the course, the student is able to communicate, orally and in writing, including by resolution of numerical problems, the main contents of the course, including through the use of commonly used tools in the field, such as patterns of lay-out.

Learning skills
Students who have attended the course will be able to deepen their knowledge in the field of food processing plants in general, by consulting their own texts specialized journals or dissemination, even outside of the topics covered closely in class.


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Course unit content

Theoretical part:

Introduction to the course

The water

The uptake of water

The water treatment

The sanitation of water

The characteristics of the fluids

Manufacture of syrups

The systems for the sterilization of liquid food

Dimensioning of bottling lines

The carbonation of beverages

The processing of milk and dairy products

Production processes of tomato

Filling systems

Aseptic packaging

The bottle washing

the capping

Visit the company of technologies for aseptic

Inspection and testing of bottles

The pasteurization of food in volume

The logistics of bottling plants


Development of a feasibility study of a plant for the food industry to the student's choice

Full programme

Introduction to the course
Flow charts of the traditional glass packaging, the viscosity of the fluid food; current issues of food plants, the flexibility of the bottling plants, introduce the technologies bottling
Bottling operations.
Description of the functionality of the bottling department, the department of preparing the liquid, the warehouses of packaging materials, finished products warehouse.
Definition of Lay-out schematic of establishment

The water
Distinction of waters according to their use; aggressiveness and hardness of the water; waters for the washing of bottles; waters for pasteurization; waters for boilers and for sterilizations; waters for the preparation of soft drinks.
Natural waters, drinking water, potable water, the structure of water. The mineral waters, evaluation parameters: fixed residue, hardness, alkalinity. Classes of mineral water, trace elements, minerals and medium mineral pd

The uptake of water
Hydrology, hydrogeology, crenologia. The uptake of water. Rainwater, surface, telluric. The uptake of water telluric uptake from groundwater. The drilled wells, types of wells drilled. The development of the wells flow rate, tubing, drainage and cementing. Technological risks of drilling.

The water treatment
The correction of the water, industrial water, on the water treatment, correction treatments. The treatment of surface water and groundwater. The chemical treatment of water, the treatment of hard water.

The sanitation of water
Chemical methods, physical and mechanical. UV treatments. The chlorination, advantages and disadvantages: sodium hypochlorite, chlorine dioxide. Ozone and ozone generators: advantages, disadvantages and limitations of use. The filtration on a bed of sand, the micro-nano-ultra filtration and treatment on activated carbon.

The characteristics of the fluids
The specific weight, density, compressibility, thermal expansion, the tensile strength. The dynamic and kinematic viscosity, the evaporation capacity

Manufacture of syrups
Densimetry; methods of measuring the density; adjusting the density; sugar; sugar in the manufacture of beverages; systems of transport and storage of sugar dry and in solution. The preparation of syrups, mixing systems in batch or continuous; filtration and brillantazione; preparation of syrups finished.

The systems for the sterilization of liquid food
Exchangers direct and indirect. Types of heat exchangers direct injection and infusion types of indirect heat exchangers, shell and tube and tubular. Temperature and duration of the sterilization process for different liquid food; performance in terms of temperature and thermal gradient of different types of heat exchangers. Range of applicability and advantages and disadvantages of each solution.

Dimensioning of bottling lines
Parameters for the determination of the problem; accumulation, accumulation time, recovery time and recovery time; fundamental patterns of bottling lines; design criteria of a line; sizing machine in recovery; pilot machine; diagrams V and sizing lines glass and PET Dimensioning tapes; efficiency of the line lay-out royal lines.

Aims of the carbonation of beverages, carbon dioxide, the supply of carbon dioxide, problems related to the use of CO2; adduction of the CO2 gas, liquid gas solutions theoretical references.
The carbonation of beverages; solubility of CO2 and influence of temperature and pressure; influence of time and the contact surface of the liquid gas; purity of the elements; drawbacks due to the presence of air in the process of carbonation; calculation of carbonation.
Methods of carbonation, the carbonators direct expansion socket and continues: regulating the flow of the liquid in the saturator.
Preparation and carbonation of the drink over, and the system Premix; Postmix the system, the solution conditions liquid gas during production.

The processing of milk and dairy products
Chemical-physical and organoleptic characteristics of the milk. Technological diagram of milk and its derivatives. Regulations on the production and processing of milk. Production cycle of milking for industrial processing. Refrigerated transport. Treatment systems and sterilization, homogenisation and centrifugation. The storage and packaging.

The tomato
Tomato production, the market, the types of finished products, chemical and physical characteristics, collection and transport, transfer of the product, grinding and refining processes.
The concentration in evaporators: heat treatments and types of plants.
The sterilization and the types of heat exchangers. The filling and packaging in containers for household and industrial

Filling systems
Classification; filling of liquids not gassed, gassed filling of liquids and the problems of planting, the isobarometria; fillers isobarometriche; outfit bench; cylinders up bottles, the rotating collector, the filling valves for fluids dishes and isobarometrici; regulating the flow of liquid in a filler.

Aseptic packaging
Development of aseptic packaging, the hygienic quality of the environment; clean rooms; HEPA filters for air; technological cycles; aseptic integral and partial sterilization of the engine block - rinsing - filling - capping; advantages and disadvantages of packaging aseptic.

The bottle washing
General considerations; germicidal action of the solutions for the washing of bottles; mechanical washing of the bottles, the wash cycle, the acid wash.
The bottle washing machines, washing machines tunnel: single end, double end, the heat balance and the hydraulic circuit, the mechanical operation, the extraction of the labels and the relief of the bottles, bottle washing with acid cycle; detergents and washing detergents

The capping
Key Features; closure systems; corks, synthetic pressure, and mechanical crown and the screw cap and the materials used.
The crown corking machines, capping machines the screw, cylinder block and cylinder block groups combined, hygiene and control of the capping

Visit the company of technologies for aseptic
Lecture on the principles of aseptic packaging technology, visits to production areas; classroom discussion.

Inspection and testing of bottles
Purposes of the analysis of the bottles; inspection, electronics inspection, control and the electronic control

Pasteurization by volume
The stabilization of the liquid; factors that influence the stability of the liquids; theoretical bases of pasteurization and calculation of pasteurization units; pasteurizers plate; the tunnel pasteurizers; the transport of the bottles in the tunnel; hot filling.

The logistics of bottling plants
The connections between the machines, bottle conveyors, metal and polymer resins. The tapes table top and flex top. The benches, transporters air in the lines PET bottles. The pallet conveyors for cartons, bundles and clusters

The elaborate structure design, technological aspects and historiography of industrial plant food.
Market analysis, identification of the volume of business sales, demand forecasting techniques; board product.
Determination of daily production capacity, waste and efficiency of the line, the net daily production capacity.
Location, location and grounds of industrial plant: ubicazionali factors and criteria for the choice of the land.
Industrial buildings: technical characteristics and specific conditions for the different processes treated.
Technological systems and their dimensions: analysis of baseline data and goals to pursue. Diagram sheet and operational processing.
Sizing service facilities.
Material flow chart of the relationship between the assets, the determination of space required and the number of machines. Drafting of the lay-out of the plant considering the method of direct calculations for technological installations and general services.
Estimated costs of intervention; definition of the indices NPV, IRR and Pay Back Period; investment analysis performed
Giuseppe Vignali


[15:08:12] Giuseppe Vignali: Rizzo Roberto. 2005-2006. Scienza e tecnologia delle acque minerali e delle bevande. Chiriotti Editore, Pinerolo (TO) Vol.1,2,3, 5.

Teaching methods

oral lessons

exercises on development of the student project

Assessment methods and criteria

written examination

oral discussion on the project preliminary delivered and evaluated
Giuseppe Vignali

Other information

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