cod. 1005925

Academic year 2017/18
1° year of course - Second semester
Academic discipline
Petrologia e petrografia (GEO/07)
Discipline mineralogiche, petrografiche e geochimiche
Type of training activity
42 hours
of face-to-face activities
6 credits
hub: PARMA
course unit

Learning objectives

Let students know the basis of analytical techniques usually employed in petrology and geochemistry in the study of petrological and geochemical processes, in the magmatic and metamorphic fields


Knowledge of the base concepts of inorganic chemistry and general mineralogy; systematic mineralogy as for silicates and oxides normally occurring in rocks. Knowledge of the employment of the optical transmitted light mineralogy microscope. Basic knowledge on physics, as for electromagnetic waves. Knowledge of the basis of the inorganic chemistry

Course unit content

1. Scientific terminology
2. sampling
3. rock samples handling
4. mineral separation
5. Analysis of volatile components
6. analysis of elements which occur in different redox state
7. X-rays
8. X-ray diffraction
9. Diffraction techniques
10. X-ray fluorescence spectrometry
11. portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometry
12. micro-X-ray fluorescence spectrometry
13. outlines on other analytical techniques on unmodified samples
14. in situ analyses on thin sections
15. Isotope analyses
16. High-energy analyses

Details can be found at the link

Full programme

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AA.VV.: Intensità delle radiazioni X diffratte. Appunti dalle lezioni (Roma).
Armigliato A. & Valdrè U. (1982): Microscopia elettronica a scansione e microanalisi – parte I. Università degli Studi di Bologna, 411 pp. Of interest: capp. 1, 2, 3.
Armigliato A. & Valdrè U. (1982): Microscopia elettronica a scansione e microanalisi – parte II. Università degli Studi di Bologna, 356 pp. Of interest: capp. 1, 2, 3.
Bonatti S. & Franzini M. (1984): alcune indicazioni sul reticolo reciproco. Da: “Cristallografia mineralogica”, Boringhieri, Torino, 361 pp. Of interest: cap. 6.
Bonissoni G. (1977): introduzione alla spettrometria dei raggi X di fluorescenza. ETAS Libri, 245 pp. Of interest: capp. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5.
Currie L.A. (1995): Nomenclature in evaluation of analytical methods including detection and quantification limits. Pure & Appl. Chem., 67(10): 1699-1723.
Droop. G.T.R. (1987): A general equation for estimating Fe3+ concentrations in ferromagnesian silicates and oxides from microprobe analyses, using stoichiometric criteria. Mineralogical Magazine, 51: 431-435.
Gallone A. (1990): Analisi fisiche e conservazione. Franco Angeli, 182 pp.
Hutchinson C.S. (1974): laboratori handbook of petrographic techniques. Wiley, 527 pp.
Horwitz W. (1990): Nomenclature for sampling in analytical chemistry. Pure & Appl. Chem., 62(6): 1193-1208.
Jordan C.F. Jr., Fryer G.E., Hemmen E.H. (1971): Size analysis of silt and clay by hydrophotmeter. J. Sedim. Petrol., 41(2): 489-496.
Klein C. (2008): Mineralogia. Zanichelli, 606 pp. Of interest: cap. 7.
Lazzarini L. & Laurenzi Tabasso M. (1986): Il restauro della pietra. CEDAM, 320 pp.
Matteini M. & Moles A. (1999): La chimica nel restauro – I materiali nell’arte pittorica. Nardini editore, 379 pp.
Potts J. (1997): A glossary of terms and definitions used in analytical chemistry. Geostandard Newsletters, 21(1): 157-161.
Ricci Lucchi F. (1980): Sedimentologia – parte I. CLUEB. Of interest: cap. 2.3.1.

Rigault G. (1966): Alcune indicazioni sul reticolo reciproco. Da: “Introduzione alla cristallografia”, Livrotto e Bella, Torino.
Salvioli Mariani E. (2005): microscopia elettronica a scansione e microanalisi. Appunti dalle lezioni.
Seccaroni C. & Moioli P. (2002): Fluorescenza X – prontuario per l’analisi XRF portatile applicata a superfici policrome. Nardini editore, 161 pp. Of interest: parte I.
Simmons G. (1959): The photo-extinction method for the measuremente os silt-sized particles. J. Sedim. Petrol., 29(2): 233-245.

Teaching methods

Outline of the general concepts in the analytical techniques. Description of analytical techniques, highlighting, for each of them, potentials and limits. Laoratory activities in both sample handling and sample analyzing, employing all the laboratories at the present available in the Earth Science Department of the University of Parma

Assessment methods and criteria

Oral exam: basis of concepts of analytical techniques; details on a specific analytical technique, and its possible employment in a project study on the petrogenesis of magmatic and metamorphic rocks

Other information

Possible excursions:
Legnaro (PD) LNL, particle accelerator equipe witj a micro-PIXE line
Electron Probe MicroAnalysis (EPMA, Department of GeoSciences, Padua University)
X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometer (XRF, Department of GeoSciences, Padua University)
Experimental laboratory of High Pressure petrology, Department of Earth Sciences, Milan University