ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY
cod. 00090

Academic year 2017/18
2° year of course - Second semester
Professor
ELVIRI Lisa
Academic discipline
Chimica analitica (CHIM/01)
Field
Discipline chimiche
Type of training activity
Basic
40 hours
of face-to-face activities
5 credits
hub: PARMA
course unit
in ITALIAN

Learning objectives

The objective of this course is to provide students, through theoretical lectures and exercises in the classroom, knowledge relating to principles of chemical equilibrium, calculation of pH of acid, base and saline solutions and principles and applications of the main techniques of volumetric analysis and instrumental analysis (chromatography and spectrophotometric techniques).

Prerequisites

The candidate must have knowledge of General Chemistry exam.

Course unit content

Introduction to analytical chemistry: qualitative analysis and quantitative analysis. Traditional methods and instrumental methods of analysis.
Principle of chemical equilibrium. Various types of equilibrium:
auto-ionisation of water, solubility product, dissociation of acids and bases, compound equilibrium formation, oxidation-reduction equilibriums.
Definition of homogeneous and heterogeneous equilibriums.
Equilibrium constant. Dependence of equilibrium constant on temperature.
Principle of mobile equilibrium (Le Chatelier-Braun).
Definition of acids and bases. Auto-ionisation and ionic product of water. Calculation of pH and concentration of the species present in the equilibrium of solutions of strong bases and acids.
Definition of weak bases and acids. Dissociation constant. Calculation of pH and concentration of the species present in the equilibrium of solutions of weak bases and acids.
Polyprotic acids. Calculation of pH and concentration of the species present in the equilibrium of solutions of polybasic acids. Distribution curve of equilibrium species on the basis of pH.
Salt hydrolysis equilibriums formed by weak acid and strong base, strong acid and weak base, weak acid and base. Acid salt hydrolysis equilibriums. Calculation of pH of saline solutions.
Buffer solutions. Calculation of pH of buffer solutions. Buffering
capacity.
Principles of volumetric analysis. Definition of primary standard.
Direct and return titration. Final point and point of equivalence.
Methods for determining point of equivalence.
Titration of strong acids with strong bases and vice versa. Titration curve. Titration of weak acids with strong bases and vice versa. Titration curve. Acid-base titration indicators.
Oxidation-reduction titrations. Oxidation-reduction indicators.
Titration curve.
Complexometric titrations. Titrations with EDTA. Conditional formation constant. Metallochromic indicators. Titration curve.
Precipitation titrations. Argentometric titrations: Mohr method, Volhard method, Fajans method. Titration curve. Spectrophotometry UV, IR. Liquid chromatography. Gaschromatography.

Full programme

Introduction to analytical chemistry: qualitative analysis and quantitative analysis. Traditional methods and instrumental methods of analysis. Errors in chemical analysis. Units of measure.
Ways of expressing the concentration of solutions: molarity, percentage by weight and by volume, parts per million and related. Preparation of standard solutions by weight and by dilution. Conversion between the various methods of expressing concentration levels. Exercises.
Principle of chemical equilibrium. Various types of equilibrium:
auto-ionisation of water, solubility product, dissociation of acids and bases, oxidation-reduction equilibriums.
Definition of homogeneous and heterogeneous equilibriums.
Equilibrium constant. Dependence of equilibrium constant on temperature.
Principle of mobile equilibrium (Le Chatelier-Braun).
Definition of acids and bases. Auto-ionisation and ionic product of water. Calculation of pH and concentration of the species present in the equilibrium of solutions of strong bases and acids. Exercises.
Definition of weak bases and acids. Dissociation constant. Calculation of pH and concentration of the species present in the equilibrium of solutions of weak bases and acids. Distribution curve of equilibrium species on the basis of pH.
Salt hydrolysis equilibriums. Calculation of pH of saline solutions.
Buffer solutions. Calculation of pH of buffer solutions. Buffering
capacity.
Principles of volumetric analysis. Definition of primary standard.
Direct and return titration. Titration of strong acids with strong bases and vice versa. Titration curve. Titration of weak acids with strong bases and vice versa. Titration curve. Acid-base titration indicators. Oxidation-reduction titrations. Oxidation-reduction indicators.
Titration curve. Complexometric titrations. Titrations with EDTA. Precipitation titrations. Argentometric titrations: Mohr method, Volhard method. Titration curve. Standardization and calibration. Spectrochemical methods. UV-spectrophotometry. Infrared spectrophotometry. Molecular absorption spectrometry. Molecular fluorescence. Atomic spectroscopy. Analytical separations. Liquid chromatography. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Gaschromatography. Mass spectrometry.

Bibliography

- Harris, Chimica Analitica Quantitativa, Ed. Zanichelli
- Skoog, West, Holler, Crouch, Fondamenti di Chimica Analitica. EdiSES.
- Hage, Carr, Chimica Analitica e Analisi Quantitativa. Ed. Piccin
PowerPoint files used for lessons

Teaching methods

For the first part of the program the explanations will be based on frontal lessons with the help of the chalkboard for the implementation of examples and explanatory charts.
For the instrumental part during the lessons the teacher will use the projection of schemes and photographs that will help the description of the instrumentation.
Exercises: Simple exercises will be proposed in order to reproduce some common procedures that may occur in a laboratory for the preparation of solutions and so on.
Other tutorials will be devoted to showing the use of common software dedicated to analytical data processing, for example for building calibration lines, charts, or for computing results using some of the statistical notions.

Assessment methods and criteria

The exam is for a written test and an oral exam. The questions will concern theoretical principles, but also data processing through exercises, and the construction of charts.
The teacher's attention will be focused on the formative aspect rather than the descriptive and informative aspect in order to verify whether the learner, in addition to acquiring knowledge, has become aware of the usefulness of the solution for the solution Of common problems that can be encountered in practical laboratory work.
For the overall judgment, reference may be made to the following items: Knowledge and understanding of matter: 80%
- Ability to apply knowledge and understanding: 15%
- Communicative Skills: 5%

Other information

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