cod. 1005925

Academic year 2015/16
2° year of course - Second semester
Academic discipline
Petrologia e petrografia (GEO/07)
Discipline mineralogiche, petrografiche e geochimiche
Type of training activity
42 hours
of face-to-face activities
6 credits
hub: PARMA
course unit
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Learning objectives

Let students know the basis of analytical techniques usually employed in petrology and geochemistry in the study of the works of art, which are built, at least in part, with geological stuff. These techniques is shown in both the diagnostic phase of degradation of the stuff and in the restoration works, with the aim to suggest a way to preserve the works of art in a restoration project and to indicate the place where to find suitable raw materials to employ in the restoration works


Knowledge of the base concepts of inorganic chemistry and general mineralogy; systematic mineralogy as for silicates and oxides normally occurring in rocks and usually employed in pigments. Knowledge of the employment of the optical transmitted light mineralogy microscope. Basal knowledge on physics, as for electromagnetic waves. Knowledge of the basis of the inorganic chemistry.

Course unit content

1. Scientific therminology
2. sampling
3. samples handling
4. mineral separation
5. Analysis of volatile components
6. analysis of elements which occur in different redox state
7. X-rays
8. X-ray diffraction
9. Diffraction techniques
10. X-ray fluorescence spectrometry
11. portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometers
12. outlines on other analytical techniques on unmodified samples
13. in situ analyses on thin sections
14. Isotope analyses
15. ultraviolet light microscope

Full programme

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AA.VV.: Intensità delle radiazioni X diffratte. Appunti dalle lezioni (Roma).
Armigliato A. & Valdrè U. (1982): Microscopia elettronica a scansione e microanalisi – parte I. Università degli Studi di Bologna, 411 pp. Of interest: capp. 1, 2, 3.
Armigliato A. & Valdrè U. (1982): Microscopia elettronica a scansione e microanalisi – parte II. Università degli Studi di Bologna, 356 pp. Of interest: capp. 1, 2, 3.
Bonatti S. & Franzini M. (1984): alcune indicazioni sul reticolo reciproco. Da: “Cristallografia mineralogica”, Boringhieri, Torino, 361 pp. Of interest: cap. 6.
Bonissoni G. (1977): introduzione alla spettrometria dei raggi X di fluorescenza. ETAS Libri, 245 pp. Of interest: capp. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5.
Currie L.A. (1995): Nomenclature in evaluation of analytical methods including detection and quantification limits. Pure & Appl. Chem., 67(10): 1699-1723.
Droop. G.T.R. (1987): A general equation for estimating Fe3+ concentrations in ferromagnesian silicates and oxides from microprobe analyses, using stoichiometric criteria. Mineralogical Magazine, 51: 431-435.
Gallone A. (1990): Analisi fisiche e conservazione. Franco Angeli, 182 pp.
Hutchinson C.S. (1974): laboratori handbook of petrographic techniques. Wiley, 527 pp.
Horwitz W. (1990): Nomenclature for sampling in analytical chemistry. Pure & Appl. Chem., 62(6): 1193-1208.
Jordan C.F. Jr., Fryer G.E., Hemmen E.H. (1971): Size analysis of silt and clay by hydrophotmeter. J. Sedim. Petrol., 41(2): 489-496.
Klein C. (2008): Mineralogia. Zanichelli, 606 pp. Of interest: cap. 7.
Lazzarini L. & Laurenzi Tabasso M. (1986): Il restauro della pietra. CEDAM, 320 pp.
Matteini M. & Moles A. (1999): La chimica nel restauro – I materiali nell’arte pittorica. Nardini editore, 379 pp.
Potts J. (1997): A glossary of terms and definitions used in analytical chemistry. Geostandard Newsletters, 21(1): 157-161.
Ricci Lucchi F. (1980): Sedimentologia – parte I. CLUEB. Of interest: cap. 2.3.1.

Rigault G. (1966): Alcune indicazioni sul reticolo reciproco. Da: “Introduzione alla cristallografia”, Livrotto e Bella, Torino.
Salvioli Mariani E. (2005): microscopia elettronica a scansione e microanalisi. Appunti dalle lezioni.
Seccaroni C. & Moioli P. (2002): Fluorescenza X – prontuario per l’analisi XRF portatile applicata a superfici policrome. Nardini editore, 161 pp. Of interest: parte I.
Simmons G. (1959): The photo-extinction method for the measuremente os silt-sized particles. J. Sedim. Petrol., 29(2): 233-245.

Teaching methods

Outline of the general concepts in the analytical techniques. Description of analytical techniques, highlighting, for each of them, potentials and limits. Laoratory activities in both sample handling and sample analyzing, employing all the laboratories at the present available in the Earth Science Department of the University of Parma

Assessment methods and criteria

Oral exam: basis of concepts of analytical techniques; details on a specific analytical technique, and its possible employment in a project of restoration of a work of art

Other information

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